by Mike McClaughry
God Religion in Mesopotamia
Reckoning – the righting of wrongs. The rectifying of damages caused by wrong actions.
Life on Earth has been plagued by wars, destructive drugs, and financial hardship. Those things have been generated by a small number of specific people who have elected themselves to be the rulers over all other men – we call them the slavemasters.
We intend to rectify the harm caused by the slavemasters. The first step is for people to know their history.
In ancient times the slavemasters were the so-called gods.
Religion was their tool to make people serve as slaves.
Sumer was one of the civilizations that appeared in ancient Mesopotamia.
Mesopotamia means – land between two rivers.
The Sumerians and others wrote on clay tablets. Hundreds of thousands of these clay tablets are in museums.
The University of Pennsylvania museum has hundreds of thousands of them and they tell us what they say. 18
The tablets talk about the Anunna, who were the so-called gods. They were also called Anunnaki. Ki is Earth.
Anunna goddess Inanna with her lion
Although the Sumerians recognized many “gods”, each Sumerian city was more devoted to a particular one of these gods and had a temple erected to house, worship and serve that particular god or goddess. A temple was the abode of a senior Anunna god or goddess. For example, the Sumerian city of Uruk had a temple for Inanna.
The goddess Inanna had many names – Ashtarte, Ashtoreth, Ishtar, Aphrodite (Greeks), and Venus (Romans).
The other Anunna gods and goddesses also had multiple names.
Anu was the king of the Anunna. His sons were Enki and Enlil. They competed over who got to be ruler of Earth.
The initial Mesopotamian god was Enki. En means Lord and ki means earth. Enki means Lord of the Earth.
Enki was also called Ea, pronounced aya. His temple was in Eridu, first city in Sumer. 1
Some of the major Sumerian gods:
An aka Anu was the Anunna lord living above the earth – “Heaven”.
Enki aka Ea was lord of the below, lord of the Earth.
Enlil was the sky, wind or storm lord. His temple was in Nippur.
Nannar aka Sin, was the moon lord. His temple was in Ur.
Utu aka Shamash was the sun lord. His temple was in Sippar.
Marduk was a son of Enki. His temple was in Babylon.
Inanna was a granddaughter of Enki. Her temple was in Uruk.
There are some other senior gods and goddesses and also junior ones.
The Anunna lived in cities that were located between and around the southern Euphrates and Tigris rivers.
That plain between those rivers was called e.din, which meant home and living place of the divine ones.
The Anunna leaders lived in temples. E meant abode/house, din meant divine one.
Thus e.din meant the home of a lord – which is what a temple was.
A garden of e.din was the garden of a lord’s temple.
The junior Anunna performed the work, such as tending gardens and livestock in edin. The Anunna had bodies, requiring food and shelter. They were often depicted with wings.
Eridu was the first Anunna city in Sumer. Enki had his temple there and he was the initial leader of the Anunna.
Enki is the Anunna god surrounded by fish
In Mesopotamian tablets there is a story called Enki and the World Order. In this story Enki organizes the universe into its present form, the Heavens above and the Earth below. Enki claimed he was the creator of all.
The Igigi were junior Anunnaki who performed work for the Anunnaki leaders. The Igigi bore the workload such as tilling the ground, digging irrigation ditches, and tending the gardens and livestock. The Igigi revolted over 40 years of day and night toil in the gardens of e.din. 2
Andrew George, Professor of Babylonian at the University of London’s School of Oriental and African Studies:
We know from many ancient Mesopotamian sources, in Sumerian and in Akkadian, that the Babylonians believed the purpose of the human race to be the service of the gods. Before mankind’s creation, the myth tells us, the cities of lower Mesopotamia were inhabited by the gods alone and they had to feed and clothe themselves by their own efforts. Under the supervision of Enlil, the lord of the earth, the lesser deities grew and harvested the god’s food, tilled the soil, and most exhaustingly, dug the rivers and waterways that irrigated the fields. Eventually the labour became too much for them and they mutinied. 3
Enki solves the problem by creating man out of clay, giving the clay life by slaughtering the Igigi god We-ila who incited the rebellion and mixing his flesh and blood into the clay, animating it. 2
(Anunna cross-breeding with humans.)
The assertion that Enki created humans is called the Eridu Creation Myth.
There are other tablets that tell the same story such as the Myth of Atrahasis. 19
Enki and the goddess Ninmah worked together to create humans to bear the toil.
Mesopotamian tablets talk about how the humans roamed with the wild animals, outside of the cities where the Anunna lived. The humans were already there, so Enki did not literally create them. What Enki did to “create them” was to perform a cross-breeding that resulted in a hybrid human being.
The following passages state the condition of the humans.
Upon the Hill of Heaven and Earth
When An had spawned the divine Godlings,
there was no cloth to wear…
the people of those distant days,
They knew not bread to eat;
They knew not cloth to wear;
They went about with naked limbs in the Land,
And like sheep they ate grass with their mouth,
Drinking water from the ditches. 4
The humans lived like animals, not knowing how to grow crops or even make clothes. The Anunna regarded them as savages. Despite their advanced knowledge, the Anunna were not saints – they lied, engaged in extramarital sex, committed incest by having sex with their own children, they raped maidens, seduced mortal men, they even had sex with beasts. They competed for political advantage and slayed each other in wars. 2
The stories about Enki creating the first humans by mixing Anunna blood with “clay” to make a new hybrid human, are referring to a cross-breeding between the Anunna and humans. The womb of the Anunna women was used to bear the first hybrid humans. The bird-headed female below is given a concoction to absorb into her body, then she is pregnant and gives birth.
Allegedly, the first male hybrid human was named Adamu and the first female was Ti-amat.
Enki then mated with hybrid human females and their children were Adapa and Titi. After that the hybrid humans were able to mate with each other and produce offspring. These hybrids were then partially educated and put to work as servants and slaves for the Anunna. 5
Whatever went on there, the Anunna made hybrid humans into their servants/slaves and had them bear the workload. As a result, the humans learn agriculture, keeping livestock, building houses, making clothes, irrigation, metalurgy, fishing, language and writing. 4
The gods then use naked man as a slave to do the work in their gardens in edin. The human slaves also till the ground, tend livestock, and dig irrigation ditches for water. They harvest the crops and serve them to the “gods”.
They also serve meat and drink.
Following is an excerpt from a hymn explaining why hybrid humans were created.
the Anunna who assign destinies,
Responded in chorus to Enlil:
In the ‘Flesh-Growing Place’ of Duranki (Nippur),
We are going to slay two divine Alla,
And from their blood give birth to human beings!
The corvee of the gods will be their corvee:
They will fix the boundaries of the fields once and for all,
And take in their hands hoes and baskets,
To benefit the House of the gods,
They will install the irrigation system
To provide water everywhere
And thus make all kinds of plants grow…
Thus they will cultivate the fields of the Anunna 4
Sumerian texts unearthed at the city of Nippur reveal that Inanna, the goddess of Uruk, was called nin-edin-na
“the lady of edin” and Inanna-edin-na “Inanna of edin”. Scholars render edin as the plain lying between the Tigris
and Euphrates rivers. The plain was an uncultivated flood plain where wild animals and humans roamed.
A vase found at Uruk shows naked men bringing garden produce to the “Lady of Edin” from her temple gardens. 8, 9, 10
The temple in Ur was the abode of the Anunna moon god, Nannar.
Enki was also called Ea. In Sumerian language – the E means house and A means water.
His temple in Eridu was built near a swamp with snakes. Thus Enki/Ea is associated with water and snakes,
one symbol for him is a serpent, often wrapped around a pole. 1, 2, 12
Enki was the keeper and guardian of Anunna knowledge. Enki was:
bel naqbi – lord of the Spring
bel uzni – lord of wisdom
mash.mash ilani – incantation specialist of the gods
ban kullat – creator of everything
Enki, along with the goddess Ninmah, is the Creator of Humankind. He is a magician. 13
* * *
Mesopotamian tablets talk about the Anunna having the food of life and the water of life which gave them immortality. The tree of life bears fruit that gives immortality. It was at Eridu where the “food of life and water of life reposes” in the care of Enki.
Adapa was a hybrid human who served Enki at Eridu. Adapa in his role as a servant-priest for Enki, caught and served fish, and he baked bread, while other humans were digging ditches for water and tending gardens and livestock. Excavations at Eridu have unearthed the shrine and near it a bread oven, within the shrine were found
fish bone offerings, and nearby a canal and irrigation ditches for the fields of barley and wheat.
The story of Adapa in Mesopotamian tablets is called, Adapa and the South Wind Myth. In this story Adapa learns magic incantations from Enki and used them to break the wing of the south wind god, thus stopping sea breezes from reaching Mesopotamia.
The king of the Anunna is Anu, who does not reside on Earth, he resides on another planet, the so-called “heaven”. King Anu becomes upset when he hears that Adapa has learned powerful incantations to use against the gods. It was forbidden knowledge for humans to have.
King Anu summoned Adapa to his heavenly abode. Anu wants to find out where Adapa obtained this forbidden knowledge. He learns that Adapa was taught the spells by Enki. However, instead of deciding to punish Adapa,
he concludes that if this man has a god’s “forbidden knowledge” he might as well be made a full-fledged god with immortality. So he summons “bread and water of life” to be given to Adapa to make him and mankind immortal.
But Adapa refuses to consume these items because his god, Enki, forewarned him these items were the “bread and water of death” and he would die if he consumed them. Enki was willing to give humans some knowledge but not all knowledge and not immortality. 2, 12, 14
* * *
Another story in Mesopotamian tablets is this one:
Enki mated with hybrid human females and they bore Adapa and Titi. Adapa mated with Titi and she bore twins, Ka-in and Abael. Ka-in was tutored in agriculture and Abael was taught to tend livestock. At a celebration Ka-in and Abael brought offerings to Enki. Enki praised the lamb offering from Abael, but not the grain offering from Ka-in.
The twins quarreled all winter about whose contribution was better. When summer began, Abael drove his flocks into the fields of Ka-in. Ka-in was angered and the twins fought until Ka-in killed Abael with a stone. Ka-in was then exiled from Edin. 5
* * *
3760 BC – There was a decision to install intermediaries (priest/kings) between the Anunna lords and mankind. Mankind is granted kingship. Etana was appointed as the first human King and he ruled from Kish.
A system developed wherein Oracle Priests, Oracle Priestesses, and Priest-Kings would relay the will of the gods to the people. This was a tactic used by kings to subjugate people, claiming to act on orders from the gods.
The people would go to Oracles, such as the Oracle of Gaia at Delphi, to receive advice or instruction from the gods and goddesses. Gaia was the Earth mother goddess who had a temple at Delphi in Greece.
* * *
Utanapishtim was the human King of Shuruppak, which was located a little north of Ur near the Euphrates River.
King Utanapishtim worshipped Enki. 12
In an Assembly of the Gods, Enlil stated that the humans were complaining about the unceasing toil imposed upon them by the gods, without any rest for them. Man’s constant noise and clamor on the earth disturbed
“his rest and sleep”.
The Minister of Canals was present at the Assembly. Enlil proposed a flood to kill the humans, which was approved. The plan was to overflow the dikes on the Euphrates River. King Anu had the Assembly members swear an oath of secrecy to not tell the humans about the plan. 2, 15
Enki gets around his oath by announcing the flood to a wall of the house that Utanapishtim lives in at Shuruppak.
“Advice to the Reed Wall: Enki opened his mouth and addressed his slave: ” Wall, listen to me! Reed wall, attend to every one of my words. Destroy a house, build a boat. Property? Hate it. Save life. The boat that you build – let its breadth equal its length.”
Utanapishtim hears Enki’s warning through the wall. He tears down his reed house and makes a boat of it, saving his family and livestock. 12
Ninurta, who was one of the Anunna, made the dikes of the Euphrates River overflow. The flood was continued for six days. On the seventh day the flood water was abated, after most of the humans near Shurrupak were dead.
Enlil became angry when he found out that Utanapishtim and his family had survived the flood. Enki beseeched Enlil not to ever again resort to a flood to control the humans and Enlil agrees to less drastic means. Then Enlil blesses Utanapishtim and his wife, saying they shall live like the gods, and grants them immortality. 15
Archaeologists found a single flood deposit at Shurrupak which they dated to circa 2900 BC. The flood was a flooding of the Euphrates River based on microscopic analysis of the flood sediments, which revealed freshwater laid silts and clays. 12
One set of Mesopotamian tablets that talks about the flood is – The Epic of Gilgamesh.
Gilgamesh was the human King of Uruk about 2900 BC. The Epic of Gilgamesh was written on 12 clay tablets.
The tablets were discovered in 1853 in the library at Nineveh.
Epic of Gilgamesh, tablet 11 – written in Akkadian language
Gilgamesh wanted immortality so he goes on a journey to find Utanapishtim.
Some excerpts from the Epic of Gilgamesh, tablet 11:
Utanapishtim spoke to Gilgamesh, saying:
“I will reveal to you, Gilgamesh, a thing that is hidden,
a secret of the gods I will tell you!
Shuruppak, a city that you surely know,
situated on the banks of the Euphrates,
that city was very old, and there were gods inside it.
The hearts of the Great Gods moved them to inflict the Flood.
Their Father Anu uttered the oath (of secrecy),
Valiant Enlil was their Adviser,
Ninurta was their Chamberlain,
Ennugi was their Minister of Canals.
Ea, the Clever Prince(?), was under oath with them
so he repeated their talk to the reed house:
‘Reed house, reed house! Wall, wall!
O man of Shuruppak, son of Ubartutu:
Tear down the house and build a boat!
Spurn possessions and keep alive living beings!
Make all living beings go up into the boat.
The boat which you are to build,
its dimensions must measure equal to each other:
its length must correspond to its width.
Just as dawn began to glow
the carpenter carried his hatchet,
The child carried the pitch,
On the fifth day I laid out her exterior.
I provided it with six decks,
The inside of it I divided into nine (compartments).
I drove plugs (to keep out) water in its middle part.
Whatever I had I loaded on it:
All the living beings that I had I loaded on it,
I had all my kith and kin go up into the boat,
all the beasts and animals of the field and the craftsmen I had go up.
forth went Ninurta and made the dikes overflow.
The Anunnaki lifted up the torches,
setting the land ablaze with their flare.
The… land shattered like a… pot.
The gods were frightened by the Flood,
and retreated, ascending to the heaven of Anu.
The gods were cowering like dogs, crouching by the outer wall.
Ishtar shrieked like a woman in childbirth,
the sweet-voiced Mistress of the Gods wailed:
‘How could I say evil things in the Assembly of the Gods,
ordering a catastrophe to destroy my people!
No sooner have I given birth to my dear people
than they fill the sea like so many fish!’
The gods–those of the Anunnaki–were weeping with her,
the gods humbly sat weeping, sobbing with grief(?),
Six days and seven nights
came the wind and flood, the storm flattening the land.
The sea calmed, fell still, the whirlwind (and) flood stopped up.
I opened a vent and fresh air (daylight!) fell upon the side of my nose.
On Mt. Nimush the boat lodged firm,
Then I sent out everything in all directions and sacrificed (a sheep).
the gods smelled the sweet savor,
and collected like flies over a (sheep) sacrifice.
Just then Enlil arrived.
He saw the boat and became furious,
he was filled with rage at the Igigi gods:
No man was to survive the annihilation!
Ea spoke to Valiant Enlil, saying:
How could you bring about a Flood without consideration
Enlil went up inside the boat
and, grasping my hand, made me go up.
He had my wife go up and kneel by my side.
He touched our forehead and, standing between us, he blessed us:
Previously Utanapishtim was a human being.
But now let Utanapishtim and his wife become like us, the gods! 15, 16
* * *
Another story in Mesopotamian tablets –
Enki noticed that the humans all spoke the same language and they were living together in peace.
To cause contention between the humans, Enki caused many languages to be spoken. 12
Akkadian language was the common language of practically the entire literary world.
The decision by Enki to introduce different languages was to keep the humans from living together in peace.
A Sumerian tale says –
In those days, the lands of Subur (and) Hamazi,
The whole universe, the people in unison
To Enlil in one tongue [spoke].
(Then) Enki, the lord of abundance (whose) commands are trustworthy,
The lord of wisdom, who understands the land,
The leader of the gods,
Changed the speech in their mouths, [brought] contention into it,
Into the speech of man that (until then) had been one.
The Mesopotamian tablets state the following about Enki –
Enki claimed he was the creator of all
Enki “created” the first humans and had them work naked in gardens in edin
Enki gives the first humans some knowledge but denies humans immortality
Enki had Ka-in exiled from the land of edin
Enki warns a human about a river flood, his family and his livestock survive in a boat
Enki causes the single language of mankind to become multiple languages
The first book of the Jewish and Christian bibles is called Genesis. One name for their god is Yahweh.
Yahweh is the creator of all
Yahweh created the first humans and had them work naked in his garden of Eden
Yahweh denies humans immortality
Yahweh exiled Cain from Eden
Yahweh warns a human about a flood, his family and animals survive in a boat
Yahweh causes the single language of mankind to become multiple languages
So, the authors of Genesis just changed the name of Enki to Yahweh. They got the stories from ancient clay tablets, without saying that is where they got the stories from.
We have now identified the Jewish and Christian God – he is Enki. Take a good look at him.
Enki is the Anunna god surrounded by fish
The God of the Jewish and Christian Bibles is a slavemaster, not the actual Creator. That makes sense out of a lot of Bible passages. The following Bible passages are the rantings of a lunatic slavemaster, not a loving God.
Book of Deuteronomy
Thou shalt fear the Lord thy God, and serve him…Ye shall not go after other gods… lest the anger of the Lord thy God be kindled against thee, and destroy thee from off the face of the earth… thou shalt worship no other god: for the Lord, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God…
If a man have a stubborn and rebellious son, which will not obey the voice of his father, or the voice of his mother, and that, when they have chastened him, will not hearken unto them. Then shall his father and his mother lay hold on him, and bring him out unto the elders of his city. And they shall say unto the elders of his city, This our son is stubborn and rebellious, he will not obey our voice; he is a glutton, and a drunkard. And all the men of his city shall stone him with stones, that he die.
Book of Exodus
He ordered 3,000 killed for worshiping another god.
And he that curseth his father, or his mother, shall surely be put to death. Six days shall work be done, but on the seventh day there shall be to you an holy day, a sabbath of rest to the Lord: whosoever doeth work therein shall be put to death.
Book of Numbers
He killed 24,000 with a plague for worshiping other gods.
He killed 14,700 with a plague for challenging his priest Moses.
He had a man stoned to death for gathering firewood on a Sunday.
Book of Genesis
He mass murders humanity with a flood.
Book of Joshua
In some parts of Canaan, he ordered everything that breathes killed.
Book of Samuel
He killed 50,000 because a few people looked inside the Ark of the Covenant.
Book of Leviticus
A man or woman …that is a wizard, shall surely be put to death.
And he that blasphemeth the name of the Lord, he shall surely be put to death.
Both thy bondmen, and thy bondmaids, which thou shalt have, shall be of the heathen that are round about you; of them shall ye buy bondmen and bondmaids. Moreover of the children of the strangers that do sojourn among you, of them shall ye buy, and of their families that are with you, which they begat in your land: and they shall be your possession. And ye shall take them as an inheritance for your children after you, to inherit them for a possession; they shall be your bondmen forever: but over your brethern the children of Israel, ye shall not rule one over another with rigour.
Many people in a dire situation, like soldiers in battle, have prayed to Yahweh for help and not received any help.
Bibles are describing a cruel slavemaster, not a loving god.
A loving God would not require worship and praise. He would not require faith, he would appear before our sight so we knew him personally. He would not require spokesmen to tell us what he thinks, he would personally tell us what he wants to say. He would care about people and be present here to assist us.
The Actual Creator
People have different beliefs about the Creator of the material universe. People believe it was created by –
A Multitude of Beings
Consider the last one.
Who made God?
The answer invariably will be – no one made God, he just exists.
How fascinating! By that, you have just said that a Being is not a creation, he just exists.
Now why would that idea only apply to one Being? Why not two Beings? Why not ten?
Why not all Beings? There you have the truth. Beings are not creations, they just exist.
Existence has two parts – Creators and Creations.
Every Being is a Creator. No Being is a Creation.
A vast multitude of Creators co-existed prior to Creation of the material universe.
Matter, Energy, Space and Time were co-created by a vast multitude of Creators.
Creations exist because Creators say they exist.
Some Creators make life forms and give them intelligent direction in living.
If people want some guidance for proper living, that is very simple.
Care for other people and all life.
Live as friends, giving assistance to each other.
In the eyes of the Anunna, the so-called lords/gods, humans were as dirt under their feet.
Their only use was to act as servants and slaves for the Anunna.
Every god religion is the same – the gods are far superior, humans must worship and serve the gods.
God religions are the shackles to bind mankind in servitude
After the Anunna were no longer around, kings and priests assumed the slavemaster mentality.
The ancient kings claimed they were a god, or they were the son of a god, or they were the spokesman for a god.
The priests claimed they were a spokesman for god and wrote Bibles.
The actual Creator did not start any religions or write any Bibles.
The slavemaster mentality is – Kings and Priests are far superior, all humans must obey and serve them.
That slavemaster mentality has been passed down in each generation of slavemasters, right up to modern times.
The Reckoning Table of Chapters
1. A Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Mythology. Gwendolyn Leick. London. 1991
3. The Epic of Gilgamesh. The Babylonian Epic Poem and Other Texts in Akkadian and Sumerian. Andrew George. London. Penguin Books. 1999
4. Creation Accounts in the Ancient Near East and in the Bible. Washington D.C. Richard J. Clifford.
The Catholic Biblical Quarterly Monograph Series 26. 1994
5. Zecharia Sitchin, author of books about the Anunnaki – some of his data is questionable or invalid
6. Explorations in Bible Lands During the 19th Century. Herman V. Hilprecht 1903
7. Early Near Eastern Seals In the Yale Babylonian Collection. Yale University Press.
8. Sumerian Hymns and Prayers to the god Dumu-zi or Babylonian Lenten Songs from
the Temple Library of Nippur. Hugo Radau. University of Pennsylvania 1913
9. Kunst Mesopotamien. Der Alte Orient, Geschichte und Kultur des alten Vorderasien.
Munchen. C. Bertelsmann. Verlag GmbH. 1991
10. Cultural Atlas of Mesopotamia and the Ancient Near East. Michael Roaf. New York 1990
11. The Ancient Near East, An Anthology of Texts and Pictures. University of Princeton. 1958
12. Myths of Enki the Crafty God. Samuel Noah Kramer & John Maier. Oxford University Press. 1989
The Sumerian epic entitled Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta
13. Inanna, Queen of Heaven and Earth, Her Stories and Hymns From Sumer. Diane Wolkstein & Samuel Noah Kramer. New York. Harper & Row
14. Hebrew Myths: The Book of Genesis. Robert Graves & Raphael Patai
15. Mesopotamian tablets entitled – Epic of Gilgamesh
18. University of Pennsylvania museum data on Anunna gods and goddesses –
19. Old Babylonian “Myth of Atrahasis,” also shows an account of the creation of human beings to relieve the gods of toil in the “Enki and Ninmah” myth.