“Confession of Faith”
– Cecil John Rhodes, written in 1877 originally
I have been looking for this document for quite a while and for some reason, last night (January 10, 2015), it finally showed up!
A professor at the University of Oregon has it underneath a segment of his own pages at the U of O website. Although, it’s quite strange that when I backed up the “link” tree to his main page, I could not find any working links that actually listed this document, so that’s a bit of a WTF? mystery but no matter. The important thing is the document is found.
The professor’s name is:
(Robert) Alan Kimball
University of Oregon
Eugene, Oregon 97403 USA
He attributes his source as being another history teacher –
Wallace was appointed to the History department of St. Mary’s University (located in Canada, Halifax, Nova Scotia) from 1968 to 2005, when he retired.
He archived Cecil Rhodes ‘Confession of Faith’ at his website, as far back as 2002. Even though his site is no longer available on the ‘main’ internet, I found it in the Internet Archive, and here is the earliest version of his page documenting ‘Confession of Faith’.
Professor Kimball of U of Oregon, appears to have taken Kimball’s page and re-archived it at his own site – which is how I found it.
Here is a PDF of the page at Kimball’s site, as viewed on January 10, 2015 –
Here is the full plain text exactly as it is on Kimball’s page – bolding is as done by Professor Kimball/SAC editor.
“Confession of Faith”
[SAC editor has added bold face and hypertext links]
Rhodes originally wrote this on June 2, 1877, in Oxford. Later, that year in Kimberley, he made some additions and changes. What follows is that amended statement. The spelling and grammar errors were in the original.
It often strikes a man to inquire what is the chief good in life; to one the thought comes that it is a happy marriage, to another great wealth, and as each seizes on his idea, for that he more or less works for the rest of his existence. To myself thinking over the same question the wish came to render myself useful to my country. I then asked myself how could I and after reviewing the various methods I have felt that at the present day we are actually limiting our children and perhaps bringing into the world half the human beings we might owing to the lack of country for them to inhabit that if we had retained America there would at this moment be millions more of English living. I contend that we are the finest race in the world and that the more of the world we inhabit the better it is for the human race. Just fancy those parts that are at present inhabited by the most despicable specimens of human beings what an alteration there would be if they were brought under Anglo-Saxon influence, look again at the extra employment a new country added to our dominions gives. I contend that every acre added to our territory means in the future birth to some more of the English race who otherwise would not be brought into existence. Added to this the absorption of the greater portion of the world under our rule simply means the end of all wars, at this moment had we not lost America I believe we could have stopped the Russian-Turkish war by merely refusing money and supplies. Having these ideas what scheme could we think of to forward this object. I look into history and I read the story of the Jesuits I see what they were able to do in a bad cause and I might say under bad leaders.
At the present day I become a member of the Masonic order I see the wealth and power they possess the influence they hold and I think over their ceremonies and I wonder that a large body of men can devote themselves to what at times appear the most ridiculous and absurd rites without an object and without an end.
The idea gleaming and dancing before ones eyes like a will-of-the-wisp at last frames itself into a plan. Why should we not form a secret society with but one object the furtherance of the British Empire and the bringing of the whole uncivilised world under British rule for the recovery of the United States for the making the Anglo-Saxon race but one Empire. What a dream, but yet it is probable, it is possible. I once heard it argued by a fellow in my own college, I am sorry to own it by an Englishman, that it was good thing for us that we have lost the United States. There are some subjects on which there can be no arguments, and to an Englishman this is one of them, but even from an American’s point of view just picture what they have lost, look at their government, are not the frauds that yearly come before the public view a disgrace to any country and especially their’s which is the finest in the world. Would they have occurred had they remained under English rule great as they have become how infinitely greater they would have been with the softening and elevating influences of English rule, think of those countless 000’s of Englishmen that during the last 100 years would have crossed the Atlantic and settled and populated the United States. Would they have not made without any prejudice a finer country of it than the low class Irish and German emigrants? All this we have lost and that country loses owing to whom? Owing to two or three ignorant pig-headed statesmen of the last century, at their door lies the blame. Do you ever feel mad? do you ever feel murderous. I think I do with those men. I bring facts to prove my assertion. Does an English father when his sons wish to emigrate ever think of suggesting emigration to a country under another flag, never—it would seem a disgrace to suggest such a thing I think that we all think that poverty is better under our own flag than wealth under a foreign one.
Put your mind into another train of thought. Fancy Australia discovered and colonised under the French flag, what would it mean merely several millions of English unborn that at present exist we learn from the past and to form our future. We learn from having lost to cling to what we possess. We know the size of the world we know the total extent. Africa is still lying ready for us it is our duty to take it. It is our duty to seize every opportunity of acquiring more territory and we should keep this one idea steadily before our eyes that more territory simply means more of the Anglo-Saxon race more of the best the most human, most honourable race the world possesses.
To forward such a scheme what a splendid help a secret society would be a society not openly acknowledged but who would work in secret for such an object.
I contend that there are at the present moment numbers of the ablest men in the world who would devote their whole lives to it. I often think what a loss to the English nation in some respects the abolition of the Rotten Borough System has been. What thought strikes a man entering the house of commons, the assembly that rule the whole world? I think it is the mediocrity of the men but what is the cause. It is simply—an assembly of wealth of men whose lives have been spent in the accumulation of money and whose time has been too much engaged to be able to spare any for the study of past history. And yet in hands of such men rest our destinies. Do men like the great Pitt, and Burke and Sheridan not now to exist. I contend they do. There are men now living with I know no other term the [Greek term] of Aristotle but there are not ways for enabling them to serve their Country. They live and die unused unemployed. What has the main cause of the success of the Romish Church? The fact that every enthusiast, call it if you like every madman finds employment in it. Let us form the same kind of society a Church for the extension of the British Empire. A society which should have members in every part of the British Empire working with one object and one idea we should have its members placed at our universities and our schools and should watch the English youth passing through their hands just one perhaps in every thousand would have the mind and feelings for such an object, he should be tried in every way, he should be tested whether he is endurant, possessed of eloquence, disregardful of the petty details of life, and if found to be such, then elected and bound by oath to serve for the rest of his life in his County. He should then be supported if without means by the Society and sent to that part of the Empire where it was felt he was needed.
Take another case, let us fancy a man who finds himself his own master with ample means of attaining his majority whether he puts the question directly to himself or not, still like the old story of virtue and vice in the Memorabilia a fight goes on in him as to what he should do. Take if he plunges into dissipation there is nothing too reckless he does not attempt but after a time his life palls on him, he mentally says this is not good enough, he changes his life, he reforms, he travels, he thinks now I have found the chief good in life, the novelty wears off, and he tires, to change again, he goes into the far interior after the wild game he thinks at last I’ve found that in life of which I cannot tire, again he is disappointed. He returns he thinks is there nothing I can do in life? Here I am with means, with a good house, with everything that is to be envied and yet I am not happy I am tired of life he possesses within him a portion of the [Greek term] of Aristotle but he knows it not, to such a man the Society should go, should test, and should finally show him the greatness of the scheme and list him as a member.
Take one more case of the younger son with high thoughts, high aspirations, endowed by nature with all the faculties to make a great man, and with the sole wish in life to serve his Country but he lacks two things the means and the opportunity, ever troubled by a sort of inward deity urging him on to high and noble deeds, he is compelled to pass his time in some occupation which furnishes him with mere existence, he lives unhappily and dies miserably. Such men as these the Society should search out and use for the furtherance of their object.
(In every Colonial legislature the Society should attempt to have its members prepared at all times to vote or speak and advocate the closer union of England and the colonies, to crush all disloyalty and every movement for the severance of our Empire. The Society should inspire and even own portions of the press for the press rules the mind of the people. The Society should always be searching for members who might by their position in the world by their energies or character forward the object but the ballot and test for admittance should be severe)
Once make it common and it fails. Take a man of great wealth who is bereft of his children perhaps having his mind soured by some bitter disappointment who shuts himself up separate from his neighbours and makes up his mind to a miserable existence. To such men as these the society should go gradually disclose the greatness of their scheme and entreat him to throw in his life and property with them for this object. I think that there are thousands now existing who would eagerly grasp at the opportunity. Such are the heads of my scheme.
For fear that death might cut me off before the time for attempting its development I leave all my worldly goods in trust to S. G. Shippard and the Secretary for the Colonies at the time of my death to try to form such a Society with such an object.
On September 19, 1877, Rhodes drafted his first will; at that time, he had an estate of only about £10,000. (Although he changed his will quite a number of times in years following, the objective remained the same. After his death, the directors of the Rhodes Trust set up the Rhodes Scholarships as the best way to achieve his objectives.) The first clause of the 1877 will bequeathed his wealth as follows:
To and for the establishment, promotion and development of a Secret Society, the true aim and object whereof shall be for the extension of British rule throughout the world, the perfecting of a system of emigration from the United Kingdom, and of colonisation by British subjects of all lands where the means of livelihood are attainable by energy, labour and enterprise, and especially the occupation by British settlers of the entire Continent of Africa, the Holy Land, the Valley of the Euphrates, the Islands of Cyprus and Candia, the whole of South America, the Islands of the Pacific not heretofore possessed by Great Britain, the whole of the Malay Archipelago, the seaboard of China and Japan, the ultimate recovery of the United States of America as an integral part of the British Empire, the inauguration of a system of Colonial representation in the Imperial Parliament which may tend to weld together the disjointed members of the Empire and, finally, the foundation of so great a Power as to render wars impossible and promote the best interests of humanity.
A word first –
The original source, that catapulted ‘Confession of Faith’ into the public eye, was a book published by his friend and mentor William Thomas Stead. It was entitled: The Last Will and Testament of Cecil J. Rhodes and was published in 1902. You can read it for free at the Internet Archive.
Much has been made of Cecil Rhodes’ world-conquering ambitions, especially by what I call conspiracy-trap websites, and to be frank, I myself have somewhat tangled in their web of over-promotion of his role in world affairs. Upon further study, going much deeper into research of Cecil and the men with which he surrounded himself, I find myself having to re-evaluate his relative importance in the scheme of things.
Not that he was not guilty of many crimes against humanity, he was. Not that he wasn’t a virulent woman-hater (mysogynist), he was, and not that he didn’t perfectly forward the world domination and enslavement plan of the British/Catholic Nesilim factions. He most certainly did.
But, over-focus on him has led to taking attention off the real nutcases, those who molded, supported, and tolerated his blood-soaked and heinous activities in Africa. It probably still serves their interests to have fingers pointing at him rather than at them. In fact, this is probably why so much is made of him, rather than the real problematic “secret society” – is a hand-fast alliance of ever-changing membership; a “secret society” that has no name, no location, and no accountability.
It is a society, – socius (Latin) companion – a voluntary associating on the part of individuals for common ends; an enduring and cooperating set of companions who have somewhat organized patterns of relationships through interaction with one another.
It is secret – something kept from the knowledge of others or shared only confidentially with a few; decisions, plans, and actions, decided upon and enacted without the knowledge or permission of others who should know about it.
It is hierarchal – the truly “deciding” votes ever only residing in the hands of a few men in each successive generation.
It is vampiric – in the sense that these people are “dead” in more than one metaphoric way, and must “feed” off the passion-for-life of others; must “feed” off their living essence, in a manner of speaking.
And so –
To me, after digging deeper into his life, I am confident in the recognition of Cecil Rhodes in the role that he really was – merely an Igor to the Draculas of humanity, and not nearly as important as he wished himself to be, or as conspiracy misdirectors have portrayed him to be.
– – –
Stead’s book provides much light on what actually happened in regards this ‘Confession of Faith’ and the subsequent wills that were built around it.
Stead’s book is actually the source of both Professor Kimball and Mills text reproduction, it begins on p. 58 of his 1902 book.
Professor Carrol Quigley also documented the existence of Rhodes’ Confession of Faith and its Jesuit model at in his book Anglo American Establishment – this book was written in 1949 but published posthumously in 1981.
The reference to the Jesuits as the model for his secret society is found in a “Confession of Faith” […] which he enclosed in his will.
Stead called the first will of Cecil’s, part of his political Will and Testament. Rhodes expanded on the ‘Confession of Faith’ in letters to Stead of 1891, showing an unchanged continuity of his ideas/goals expressed in 1877.
Letters to Stead
Rhodes – plain text, letter to Stead of Autumn 1891.
I find I am human and should like to be living after my death; still, perhaps, if that name is coupled with the object of England everywhere, and united, the name may convey the discovery of an idea which ultimately led to the cessation of all wars and one language throughout the world […] What an awful thought it is that if we had not lost America, or if even now we could arrange with the present members of the United States Assembly and our House of Commons, the peace of the world is secured for all eternity!
We could hold your federal parliament five years at Washington and five at London.
The only thing feasible to carry this idea out is a secret one (society) gradually absorbing the wealth of the world to be devoted to such an object. There is Hirsch with twenty millions, very soon to cross the unknown border, and struggling in the dark to know what to do with his money; and so one
might go on ad infinitum.
Fancy the charm to young America, just coming on and dissatisfied for they have filled up their own country and do not know what to tackle next to share in a scheme to take the government of the whole world!
What a scope and what a horizon of work, at any rate, for the next two centuries, the best energies of the best people in the world; perfectly feasible, but needing an organisation, for it is impossible for one human atom to complete anything, much less such an idea as this requiring the devotion of the best souls of the next 200 years. There are three essentials:
(1) The plan duly weighed and agreed to.
(2) The first organisation.
(3) The seizure of the wealth necessary.
This first Will, with it’s “Confession of Faith” 1877 issue date that we covered earlier, was entrusted to William Thomas Stead., along with the above later statements as his “Political Will” .
It was later in the same year of 1877 that he drew up his first will. This document he deposited with me at the same time that he gave me his “political will and testament.”
It was in a sealed envelope, and on the cover was written a direction that it should not be opened until after his death.
[Cecil died on March 26, 1902.]
That will remained in my possession, unopened, until March 27th, 1902, when I opened it in the presence of Mr. Hawksley. It was dated Kimberley, September 19th, 1877. It was written throughout in his own handwriting.
– The Last Will and Testament of Cecil J. Rhodes published in 1902
Stead, although himself a proponent of increasing the “english-speaking” races, found that even he could not stomach the outright brutality and horrors inflicted on the ‘inferior races’ during the Boer Wars, atrocities organized and committed to by Cecil Rhodes and his English accomplices.
William Stead spoke out vocally and vehemently against these behaviors (he was one of the first investigative journalists), and not long after that he was removed as an executor from Rhodes’ estate.
About the Cecil Rhodes Wills –
Steads book, as does Quigley’s, documents the multiple wills of Cecil Rhodes. Based on comparing the two, Steads is the superior resource, based on my research..
Will #1 – 1877
- Lord Carnarvon
- Sidney Shippard.
Stead: “This first will was, however, speedily revoked. Mr. Rhodes seems to have soon discovered that the Colonial Secretary for the time being was of all persons the last to whom such a trust should be committed.”
Will #2 – 1882
- N. E. Pickering
Stead: “He then executed his second will, which was a very informal document indeed. It was written on a single sheet of notepaper, and dated 1882. It left all his property to Mr. N. E. Pickering, a young man employed by the De Beers Company at Kimberley. Mr. Rhodes was much attached to him, and nursed him through his last illness.”
There are numerous allegations of Cecil Rhodes’ odd sexual behavior, but the one thing that stands out clearly evident is that he never had a single relationship with a woman. However, he had a tendency to surround himself with young, handsome men, he seemed to really “need” to have a sort of homosexual love or extremely close relationship with another man, but again, never with a woman.
Pickering was one of a number of young men to whom Rhodes became attached during his lifetime, several of whom were given jobs as his secretary. Nicknamed “Rhodes’ lambs”, later additions included Harry Currey, Jack Grimmer, and Philip Jourdan (who confessed his love for Rhodes in his autobiography).
None of these later relationships affected Rhodes so deeply as his intimacy with Pickering, except for maybe his last secretary, who was buried next to Rhodes when he died.
Will #3 – 1888
- Lord Rothschild.
Stead: “After the death of Mr. Pickering Mr. Rhodes executed a third will in 1888, in which, after making provision for his brothers and sisters, he left the whole of the residue of his fortune to a financial friend, whom I will call “X.,” in like manner expressing to him informally his desires and aspirations. This will was in existence when I first made the acquaintance of Mr. Rhodes.”
X – as Stead so euphemistically named him – was Lord Rothschild. Rothschild had just financed Rhodes’s De Beers company in 1887, launching De Beers Consolidated Mining in March of 1888, so this will change was a somewhat logical outcropping of that relationship.
Will #4– March 1891
- Lord Rothschild
- W. T. Stead was added
Stead: “Mr. Rhodes superseded the will, which he had made in 1888, on a sheet of notepaper, which left his fortune to “X.,” by a formal will, in which the whole of his real and personal estate was left to “X.” and to “W. Stead, of the REVIEW OF REVIEWS.” This will, the fourth in order, was signed in March, 1891.
Stead: “On bidding me good-bye, after having announced the completion of this arrangement, Mr. Rhodes stated that when he got to Africa he would write out his ideas, and send them to me. It was in fulfilment of this promise that he sent me the letter dated August 19th and September 3rd,1891. It was written by him at his own suggestion in order that I might publish it in literary dress in his name as an expression of his views. I carried out his instructions, and published the substance of this letter, with very slight modifications necessary to give it the clothing that he desired, as a manifesto to the electors at the General Election of 1895.”
Stead: “[…]from the year 1891 till the year 1899 I was designated by Mr. Rhodes in the wills which preceded that of 1899 as the person who was charged with the distribution of the whole of his fortune. From 1891-3 I was one of two, from 1893 to 1899 one of three, to whom his money was left; but I was specifically appointed by him to direct the application of his property for the promotion of the ideas which we shared in common.”
Will #5– 1892
- Lord Rothschild
- W. T. Stead
- Rhodes’s solicitor, B. F. Hawksley, was added
Will #7 – 1899*
*Final Will, July 1st, 1899, can be viewed here.
Initially, Stead was part of this Will too.
Stead: “It was in July, 1899, before the outbreak of the war, that Mr. Rhodes revoked his will of 1891, and substituted for it what is now known as his last will and testament. Anyhow, the whole scheme was recast.”
Stead: “Trustees were appointed for carrying out various trusts, all of which, however, did not absorb more than half of the income of his estate. The idea which found expression in all his earlier wills reappeared solely in the final clause appointing his trustees and executors joint-heirs of the residue of the estate.”
Stead: “In selecting the executors, trustees and joint-heirs Mr. Rhodes substituted the name of Lord Grey for that of “X.,” [Lord Rothschild] re-appointed Mr. Hawksley and myself, strengthened the financial element by adding the names of Mr. Beit and Mr. Michell, of the Standard Bank of South Africa, and then crowned the edifice by adding the name of Lord Rosebery. As the will stood at the beginning of the war, there were six executors, trustees, and joint-heirs to wit, Mr. Hawksley and myself, representing the original legatees, Lord Rosebery, Lord Grey, Mr. Beit, and Mr. Michell. […] To be merely one of half a dozen executors and trustees was a very different matter from being charged with the chief responsibility of using the whole of Mr. Rhodes’s wealth for the purposes of political propaganda […] “
Stead, together with Lord Rothschild (see article later here) are who convinced Cecil to extend his sholarships to include America, but could not convince him to extend them to women. This is another clear example of Rhodes’ misogyny.
Stead: “I was more fortunate, however, in inducing him to extend the scope of his scholarships so as to include in the scheme the States and Territories of the American Union, but he refused to open his scholarships to women.”
This is also when the Rhodes Scholarships were created, exactly as per the original intent of the Society of the Elect back in 1891.
I obtained Whyte’s books recently, and I scanned the relevant pages of Sir Frederick Whyte, Life of W. T. Stead Volume II, Chapter 25, pp. 196-213 and uploaded the PDF to the Just Dox – British Intelligence section of our Reading Library – This provides documentation concerning the fact that Cecil Rhodes did form his Secret Society, and who with.
Whyte’s book, p. 211 –
The Rhodes Scholarships idea, conceived at about the same time, [February 1891] shows every sign of immortality.
Rhodes and Stead had often discussed it in the ‘nineties, but it was not until April 10, 1900, that the provisions to be incorporated in the trust deed were finally decided on. Rhodes invited Stead to dinner – again at the Burlington – to discuss the matter with himself and his solicitor, Mr. Hawkesley.
Note: It would not be until December 1976, that British Education Secretary Shirley Williams removed the word “manly” from the will, allowing women to apply for and participate in the Rhodes Scholarship. It was also only at this time that Oxford’s colleges began to admit women to their colleges, ending over five hundred years of misogynistic behavior. The first class of female Rhodes Scholars entered Oxford in 1977. Source: Rhodes Project, History of the Scholarship part two.
By 2013, 3,324 Americans had been awarded Rhodes Scholarships, only 487 of which were American women.
During that same talk on April 10th of 1900, after the siege of Kimberley, and Rhodes was unable to convince Stead to change his position regarding Cecil’s atrocious activities in Africa.
The following passage is also of particular interest because it reveals that Stead had acted as somewhat of a mentor to Cecil Rhodes and Alfred Milner, in political ideas.
When, after the raising of the siege of Kimberley, Mr. Rhodes returned to London, I had a long talk with him at the Burlington Hotel in April, 1900. Mr. Rhodes, although more affectionate than he had ever been before in manner, did not in the least disguise his disappointment that I should have thrown myself so vehemently into the agitation against the war. It seemed to him extraordinary; but he charitably concluded it was due to my absorption in the Peace Conference at the Hague. His chief objection, which obviously was present to his mind when, nearly twelve months later, he removed me from being executor, was not so much the fact that I differed from him in judgment about the war, as that I was not willing to subordinate my judgment to that of the majority of our associates who were on the spot.
He said: “That is the curse which will be fatal to our ideas insubordination. Do not you think it is very disobedient of you? How can our Society be worked if each one sets himself up as the sole judge of what ought to be done? Just look at the position here. We three are in South Africa, all of us your boys” (for that was the familiar way in which he always spoke) “I myself, Milner and Garrett, all of whom learned their politics from you.
This is Garrett.
Rhodes went back to Africa and Stead did not see him again till his return in 1900, at which point he added a codicil in January, removing Stead’s name.
Stead: “In January, 1901, he had added a codicil to his will, removing my name from the list of executors, fearing that the others might find it difficult to work with me. He wrote me at the same time saying I was “too masterful” to work with the other executors.”
Codicil #1 – January, 1901
- Mr. Rhodes directed that the name of W. T. Stead should be removed from the list of his executors.
Codicil #2 – October, 1901
- Mr. Rhodes added the name of Lord Milner to the list of joint tenants, executors and trustees.
Codicil #3 – March, 1902
- Mr. Rhodes, on his death bed, appointed Dr. Jameson as one of his trustees, with all the rights of other trustees.
At the time of Cecil Rhodes’s death in March of 1902, the re-arranging had resulted in a board of seven trustees:
- Lord Milner – Alfred Milner
- Lord Rosebery – Archibald Philip Primrose, the Rothschild rep. He had married Rothschild’s daughter Hannah.*
- Lord Grey
- Alfred Beit
- L. L. Michell
- B. F. Hawksley
- Dr. Starr Jameson.
*To better understand the sometimes complex inter-relationships of this Rothschild element, I offer the following simplified genealogy related to Hannah, Rosebery, and the first British Baron – Lord Nathan Mayer Rothschild. The founder of the British banking branch was Nathan Mayer Rothschild, son of Mayer Amschel. Lionel and Mayer de Rothschild are the two sons that we are interested in. Mayer was Hannah’s father and when he died in 1874 she became the richest woman in Britain. Her father’s wealth then passed directly into the hands of the Cecil bloc, through her marriage to Archibald Philip Primrose the 5th Earl of Rosebery in 1878 – she died in 1890. Her “introduction” to Rosebery had been arranged by none other than Benjamin Disraeli. Her father’s brother, Lionel, had a son named Nathan Mayer Rothschild, nicknamed “Natty”. It was he that was “elevated” to being a British Baron in 1885 by Queen Victoria, and became the first Jewish member of the House of Lords. This Nathan Rothschild was Hannah’s cousin, and is the man who was directed to finance Cecil Rhodes blood-soaked “investments” in Africa, and direct what he was to do with that money in his will.
Note: Lionel was refused the Baron title, when Prime Minister Gladstone proposed to Queen Victoria that he be made a peer. She said no, saying that titling a Jew would raise antagonism and furthermore it would be unseemly to reward a man whose vast wealth was based on what she called “a species of gambling” rather than “legitimate trade.” One can only cringe at the utter hypocrisy of that statement, considering that the bulk of Britain’s “legitimate trade” had always been drugs and slaves in one form at another.
This is the board to which the world looked to set up the Rhodes Scholarships.
Here are pictures of all of these trustees, from Stead’s book.
Lord Alfred Milner
Archibald Philip Primrose – Earl of Rosebery
Lord Earl Gray
Mr. Alfred Beit
Mr. L.L. Michell
Dr. Starr Jameson
After his death, the directors of the Rhodes Trust set up the Rhodes Scholarships as the best way to achieve his objectives.
– Professor Wallace Mills, 2002
The above men were this board.
As a result of complex and secret negotiations in which Lord Rosebery was the chief figure, Britain kept Uganda, Rhodes was made a privy councilor, Rosebery replaced his father-in-law, Lord Rothschild, in Rhodes’s secret group and was made a Trustee under Rhodes’s next (and last) will.
– Quigley, Tragedy and Hope: A History of the World in Our Time, Volumes 1-8, New York: The Macmillan Company 1966; p. 124 of PDF from the Internet Archive.
Stead: “After various private dispositions Mr. Rhodes in his original will left the residue of his real and personal estate to the Earl of Rosebery, Earl Grey, Alfred Beit, William Thomas Stead, Lewis Lloyd Michell and Bourchier Francis Hawksley absolutely as joint tenants. The same persons were also appointed executors and trustees.”
In a Codicil dated January, 1901, Mr. Rhodes directed that the name of W. T. Stead should be removed from the list of his executors.
In a second Codicil dated October, 1901, Mr. Rhodes added the name of Lord Milner to the list of joint tenants, executors and trustees.
In a third Codicil, dated March, 1902, Mr. Rhodes appointed Dr. Jameson as one of his trustees, with all the rights of other trustees.
Just three months after Rhodes’ death, William Stead revealed the whole sordid story about the Cecil wills, the Rhodes Scholarship, and the real purposes of each, in his book The Last Will and Testament of Cecil J. Rhodes. He revealed that there had also been newspaper articles about it prior to his book. (editor note dated June 4th, 1902)
The final Will (July 1st, 1899) was contained in his book, but you can also view it here. A few excerpts from that Will, go a long way in illustrating just what the Rhodes Trust scholarships were really about.
(5.) The Scholarships at Oxford.
Whereas I consider that the education of Objects of young Colonists at one of the Universities in the . United Kingdom is of great advantage to them for giving breadth to their views for their instruction in life and manners (/) and for instilling into their minds the advantage to the Colonies as well as to the United Kingdom of the retention of the unity of the Empire.
And whereas I also desire to encourage and foster an appreciation of the advantages which I implicitly believe will result from the union of the English-speaking peoples throughout the world and to encourage in the students from the United States of North America who will benefit from the American Scholarships to be established for the reason above given at the University of Oxford under this my Will an attachment to the country from which they have sprung but without I hope withdrawing them or their sympathies from the land of their adoption or birth.
I appropriate two of the American Scholarships to each of the present States and Territories of the United States of North America […]
If you look at the overall lists of scholarships globally, in the will itself, you’ll see that two for every state and territory of the U.S. makes it the dominant share of the funding, completely dwarfing any other realm, or even the rest combined.
Now therefore I direct my Trustees as soon as may be after my death and either simultaneously or gradually as they shall find convenient and if, gradually then in such order as they shall think fit to establish for male students the Scholarships…
…I direct that in the election of a student to a Scholarship regard shall be …
(i.) his literary and scholastic attainments
(ii.) his fondness of and success in manly outdoor sports such as cricket football and the like
(iii.) his qualities of manhood truth courage devotion to duty sympathy for the protection of the weak kindliness unselfishness and fellowship and
(iv.) his exhibition during- school days of moral force of character and of instincts to lead and to take an interest in his school-mates for those latter attributes will be likely in after-life to guide him to esteem the performance of public duty as his highest aim.
Smugness and Brutality – that’s the ticket…
“…laughing, as he wrote down the points. “First, there are the three qualities. You know I am all against letting the scholarships merely to people who swot over books, who have spent all their time over Latin and Greek. But you must allow for that element which I call ‘smug,’ and which means scholarship. That is to stand for four-tenths. Then there is ‘brutality,’ which stands for two-tenths. Then there is tact and leadership, again two-tenths, and then there is ‘unctuous rectitude,’ two-tenths. That makes up the whole. You see how it works.” […]
It’s interesting that the top quality that Cecil wants to see in these “chosen” is smugness! Followed closely by brutality! That about says it all, doesn’t it. You might wonder what the heck “unctuous rectitude” is. It means basically slimy, oily, and most importantly false outward moral actions and “righteousness”.
Stead, who as we know ran a periodical called Review of Reviews, uses the genocidal King Leopold in a 1903 issue, to describe exactly what it is, this quality Cecil wants his scholarship recipients to have.
– The Review of Reviews: Volume 27, edited by William Thomas Stead, June 1903 issue.
AN EXPERT IN UNCTUOUS RECTITUDE.
Emperor Leopold is a wily bird. No one knows better than he how to exploit either public sentiment in Europe or the india-rubber ﬁelds in Central Africa.
- Himself a cynic, he is ever posing as a philanthropist.
No one is more expert in the distinctively English quality of unctuous rectitude.
- He never does wrong without making protestations of pharisaic perfection.
If he establishes the new slavery with one hand, with the other he subscribes to anti-slavery societies.
He receives eulogistic addresses from Baptist missionaries in Brussels at the very moment that his agents are despatching cannibal hordes throughout the Congo regions in order to compel the unhappy natives to bring in rubber—on penalty of death.
The Emperor of the Congo may have levies whose ofﬁcers exact due tale of smoked hands, and whose commiss’ariat department replenishes its larder with the bodies’ of the slaughtered victims of his cannibal soldiers, but he is scrupulous to use a proportion of his wealth in the service of art, philanthropy,and religion.
This acts both as a salve to his conscience and as a blind to the public.
– one of J.P. Morgan’s favorite clandestine clients, second only to the Pope.
In the same issue, we see exactly who pushed on Cecil Rhodes the addition of the U.S. to the British domination plans.
Lord Nathan Rothschild, the favored pet Igor of the British slavemasters.
The idea of using the Preferential Tariff- as a means of uniting the Empire was, at one time, a very favourite idea, of Mr. Rhodes, but, his enthusiasm was dashed by the criticism of Lord Rothschild. One day, when Mr. Rhodes had been descanting upon the virtues of an Imperial Zollverein, Lord Rothschild remarked that the idea was only practicable if the United States came in too. If the British Empire and the United States were a ﬁscal unit they would be a world in themselves, and could erect a tariff wall against other nations, but the British Empire without the United States was not self-sufﬁcient. When Mr. Rhodes repeated that conversation to me, he made no secret of the deep impression which Lord Rothschild’s observation made upon him; and it was one of the considerations which led him to favour the idea of the absorption of the Empire in the Republic as the only method of obtaining the ideal upon which he had set his heart.
– The Review of Reviews: Volume 27, edited by William Thomas Stead, June 1903 issue.
It was in 1895, that Cecil Rhodes first had the idea to form scholarships, you can date that this was before he had his conversation with Rothschild, because he does not include America in this initial codicil.
It was at an interview in January, 1895, that Mr. Rhodes first announced to me his intention to found scholarships.
[…] He explained that there would be three for French Canadians and three for British. Each of the Australasian Colonies, including Western Australia and Tasmania, was to have three that is to say, one each year; but the Cape, because it was his own Colony, was to have twice as many scholarships as any other Colony.
– William Stead
Besides the heavy focus of the scholarships on America – two per state/territory, the other thing that should be stood out is what Cecil went out of his way to exclude.
P. 33 pf Stead’s book, list –
The following is a list of Colonies to which no Scholarships have been appropriated:
- Nova Scotia
- New Brunswick
- Prince Edward Island
- North-West Territories
- British Columbia
- Leeward Islands
- Windward Islands
- Trinidad and Tobago
- New Guinea
- Hong Kong
That’s about the gist of things with the scholarships, details of dollars and cents notwithstanding.