This article covers a little known coordinating board formed in 1951 that coordinated all psychological warfare projects at one time. It also discusses a number of other equally little known organizations and their relationship to this board.
~ Published July 4, 2017 ~
What Makes Us “Tick”
The Psychological Strategy Board
By Virginia McClaughry
As part of doing the research for my upcoming library article tentatively titled: The Use of U.S. Universities to Conduct Eugenics Research and Intelligence Operations I ran into a bit of a research ‘wall’.
Two things came together for me to help penetrate this wall, one of which came about as a result of getting tagged by another blog and finding some interesting documents there. But one document there in particular really stood out. It was called: The Doctrinal Program and it was put out on behalf of something called the PSB or Psychological Strategy Board.
I’ll bet you’ve never heard of it before.
Well, neither had I.
In that as yet unpublished article, I had written about Eric Trist of Tavistock and what the stated goals were for the work Tavistock men had been doing in conjunction with British and American Intelligence during WWII.
By the end of the war a considerable number of psychiatrists and social scientists had become involved in this comprehensive set of innovative applications of concepts of social psychiatry. They saw in these approaches a significance which did not seem to be limited by the condition of war, and were determined to explore their relevance for the civilian society. Obviously, individual programs could not be transferred without considerable modification; entirely new lines of development would have to be worked out. Nevertheless, a new action-oriented philosophy of relating psychiatry and the social sciences to society had become a reality in practice.
This event signified the social engagement of social science.
Source: Eric Trist and Hugh Murray, The Foundation and Development of the Tavistock Institute to 1989, Tavistock Institute
This is rather key for a number of reasons, top among them being what these people we call the slavemasters were going to now do after WWII.
Probably the most stellar example encapsulating their expanded plan was this.
On June 1 of 1951, when the ‘Big Three’ (Vatican, British, and American Intelligence) met at a secret conference at a Ritz-Carlton in Canada, they knew there was no such thing as “brainwashing” – it was one of their own propagandists who had invented the term
They needed to invent a threat supposedly from those dastardly communists, also their invention from previous generations, in order to drum up financing from their respective governments and give them a suitable outer “cover”.
More importantly this “threat” must provide a plausible reason so that they could carry out their real goal, which was – to experiment in how to “brainwash” people.
Put simply, the goals of which were:
- Repentance and Self-Condemnation, blank slate – Allen Dulles
- weaken, undermine, or remove the supports to the old patterns of behavior and the old attitudes – Dr. Schein
Author Alfred McCoy describes this meeting further – citing Canadian George Cooper’s report about his investigation into what was going on at McGill University. The meeting is documented in Cooper’s Appendix 21, described as: Minutes of June 1, 1951 Canada/US/UK meeting re: communist “brainwashing” techniques during the Korean War
The meeting is also verified as taken place in documents from Black Vault’s MKULTRA archives disk 1, folder 149496.
The full document also makes clear that the coordinating point of all three countries programs was a Dr. Webster of the RDB, as laid out in this next document from Black Vault’s MKULTRA archives disk 1, folder 144788, image #1 – this is a really important one when you understand just who that is.
Doesn’t tell you much, does it, but the importance of the statement I highlighted cannot be understated.
Who is he and what is the RDB?
This is William Webster in 1952 – also VP of New England Electric
You can read all about who he is and what this “RDB” is, in this post and in these two library articles of mine –
It was only a couple of years after this coordinating meeting, that a man named George A. Morgan submitted an outline to the CIA of what he called The Doctrinal Program. This was May 5, 1953. Note: That’s only a month after another parallel and also top secret CIA project got going – MK-ultra.
Now, George here, worked for something called the Psychological Strategy Board.
For the purposes of our introduction here, I have composed a brief overview of what that is.
The Psychological Strategy Board was formed literally just before that secret meeting at the Ritz Carlton, 2 months before, to be exact, on April 4, 1951. Formed during the Truman administration, it was a committee specifically formed to coordinate and plan for psychological operations, and it was formed specifically in relation to what was going on in Korea at the time.
Note: That is rather important, by the way. Please see library article: A History of Korea and The Unification Church Part 1 as well as the upcoming Part 2 (that will go into the WWII period and just after) Korea, using Japan as their favored
bitch pitbull, was meant to be a showcase of the supposed ‘Communist’ threat.
The PSB was formed under, or rather as part of the National Security Council.
The National Security Council was created in 1947 by the National Security Act. The intent was to ensure coordination and concurrence among the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force and other instruments of national security policy such as the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), also created in the National Security Act.
The PSB was created in response to the growth of Office of Policy Coordination covert activities during the Korean War. The OPC was Frank Wisner’s unit, where L Ron Hubbard’s recruiter Miles Copeland worked.
How the PSB got started was that President Truman had issued a private directive on April 4, 1951 to get this board established, after “advice” from the slavemaster puppet “advisers”.
Allen Dulles, CIA director Walter Bedell-Smiths deputy, was right there in the initial forming days of the PSB, as this declassifed CIA document dated 23 May 1951 shows. Allen Dulles was submitting a proposal to his boss, the head of the CIA Bedell-Smith, of what should be coordinated.
Have a look at some items I pulled out of it –
In order to give effect to the terms of the President’s Directive of April 4, 1951, the responsibilities of the Director and the functions of the Staff, subject to the Board should be:
a. to encourage the responsible agencies to produce ideas in support of psychological operations;*
*See definition in President’s directive, which excludes only overt economic warfare.
b. as necessary, to coordinate, expedite, and ensure the expansion of the planning and implementing of psychological
policies and programs;
c. to initiate and formulate proposals, including proposals for national psychological strategy, which would be referred as appropriate to the Board or directly to the responsible operating departments or agencies for development and execution;
d. to make a broad evaluation of current and proposed operations in the light of national plans and to suggest additional rneasures, changes in emphasis, and improvements in execution;
e. to assure that in the determination, pronouncement and implementation of political, economic and military policies, adequate attention is given to their psychological effects and to existing psychological programs;
f. to assure that the programs of psychological operating agendas will be furthered by U.S. Government official pronouncements;
g. to encourage, receive, and review proposals and research bearing on psychological operations from private and official sources outside the operating departments and agencies and to make these available as appropriate to such agencies.
While all that was getting sorted out, in Without Cloak and Dagger CIA agent Miles Copeland explains that this is when the SPD or Special Projects Division was formed, but that it was first called PPPM.
There have been many changes in this special division it first began to function, in 1951, as “PPPM” for Psychological Political and Para-Military.”
The original Chief, brought into the Agency by Allen Dulles, was one Thomas Braden, a brilliant man in his early thirties who had no interest in commanding an operation junk heap and who set about creating a special division to give covert support to international associations, student movements, and publications that left-of-center but anti-Communist. His programs grew until they were exposed in 1967 by a national magazine* following the resulting public outcry, the division was cut down to few paper shufflers.
*In February, 1967, the left-wing Ramparts magazine disclosed the details of the CIA’s financing of the National Student Association’s overseas programs. The result, after a long Congressional hassle which was fully aired in the press, was a Presidential decision that “no Federal Agency shall provide any covert financial assistance or support, direct or indirect to any of the nation’s educational or private voluntary organizations.”
After the top secret meeting at the Ritz Carlton on June 1, President Truman issues his act (#128) officially establishing the Psychological Strategy Board just 19 days later on June 20.
There is hereby established a Psychological Strategy Board responsible, within the purposes and terms of this directive, for the formulation and promulgation, as guidance to the departments and agencies responsible for psychological operations, of over-all national psychological objectives, policies and programs, and for the coordination and evaluation of the national psychological effort.
The Board will report to the National Security Council on the Board’s activities and on its evaluation of the national psychological operations, including implementation of approved objectives, policies, and programs by the departments and agencies concerned.
The Board shall be composed of:
a. The Undersecretary of State, the Deputy Secretary of Defense, and the Director of Central Intelligence, or, in their absence, their appropriate designees;
b. An appropriate representative of the head of each such other department or agency of the Government as may, from time to time, be determined by the Board.
The Board shall designate one of its members as Chairman.
A representative of the Joint Chiefs of Staff shall sit with the Board as its principal military adviser in order that the Board may ensure that its objectives, policies and programs shall be related to approved plans for military operations.
Besides a chairman, the board could also elect a director, the first one was Gordon Gray until George A. Morgan took over. (Gray was later National Security Advisor under Eisenhower)
It was abolished September 3, 1953 by Executive Order, with its responsibilities being transferred to its new incarnation called the Operations Coordinating Board.
In a nutshell, the entire purpose of the PSB was the conducting of covert warfare. Particularly focusing on psychological warfare, against the ‘enemies’ of the slavemasters world-domination plans conducted in the name of ‘freedom and democracy’ – a particularly offensive self-positioning considering what these people truly stood for.
This is where the term War for the Minds of Men comes from.
– – –
That concludes our brief overview.
We’re going to do a more comprehensive study next – starting with what’s going on in and around the formation of this PSB, and then diving much further into the details about what it did.
Searching for new routes to hide the Eugenics agenda
which in turn – is actually the same Age Old Slavemaster agenda
Inventing the “Enemy”
Communism is not a new invented enemy. It is simply a controlled opposition operation begun to counter the American Revolution.
But what it is, is an integral part of a long-running campaign AGAINST Democracy as conceived by Founding Fathers like Thomas Jefferson. I have put together quite a few examples of just how many people and front organizations were involved in an over 200 year campaign to destroy what was begun in America. If you’re interested, you can read all about it in my Reading Library articled titled: Why Communism? Or… Who Is The Real Enemy published July 2, 2017.
After WWII, Miles Copeland, former OSS and soon to be CIA agent, recounted some conversations he was part of (as included in his book The Game Player).
General Magruder went on to say that he’d spent the past month talking intelligence organization in high places, that he hadn’t heard a word to indicate that President Truman’s words had reached the planners.
The top people in the Departments of State, army, navy and air force were busily concocting dangers that would justify increases in their respective budgets, and they had developed a whole new glossary of cliches for the purpose, ‘preventing another Pearl Harbor’ being one of them.
‘No one,’ [Magruder] said in answer to my question, ‘is asking what, realistically, we Americans have to fear in the post-war world.’
In addition to the above, the ‘fear of communism’ and ‘threat of nuclear war’ are what Copeland detailed that they eventually settled on concocting as the enemies.
These ‘enemies’ were then used to justify budgets for continuing the human experimentation that WWII had been used as ‘cover’ for.
This is also what is being hidden under the rubrick of ‘psychological operations’ which, in a way, is just a cloaking term for continuing what is essentially eugenics research.
Now that the concocted enemy was chosen, and more specifically worded as “the communists“, they took right off with the very first secret project created after the war – Project CHATTER instituted by the U.S. Navy in 1947.
Dr. Charles Savage was put in charge of that, experimenting on mental patients (and animals) through the auspices of the Naval Medical Research Institute in Bethesda, Maryland. The experiments were aimed at trying to obtain information from people against their will but without physical duress – as in they didn’t want to ‘leave a mark’ or any evidence that they had done the procedure.
Within just two years of Project CHATTER, in the spirit of gaining public acceptance of the concocted enemy of ‘communism’, the Vatican slavemasters did their part.
They trotted out Hungarian (and Roman Catholic cardinal) Josezf Mindszenty in 1949 as supposed proof of ‘what the Russians could do to people‘. The Cardinal appeared zombie-like, as though drugged or hypnotized. Other defendants at Soviet “show trials” had displayed similar symptoms as they recited unbelievable confessions in dull, cliché-ridden monotones.
Put even more directly – this was a complete and utter staged farce.
I mean really look at this guy.
He looks like an escapee from that TV show called The Munsters or maybe the character ‘Grandpa’ from The Adams Family.
They chose him for a very specific reason. For five decades he had a well-known career in the Catholic church dedicated to opposing ‘communism’ in any form – which has really always actually been about the fear of American democracy catching on in the rest of the world.
So, to trot him out as now in support of communism after his supposed sojourn in Russian interrogation chambers – by the supposedly Russian-backed People’s Republic of Hungary – well, you do the math.
It was shortly after that Mindsentzy “trial” that a workgroup was set up by Fred Williams of the U.S. Air Force. It was called the Air Force Psychological Warfare Division and was located at Maxwell Air Force Base in Montgomery, Alabama. The group was a clearing house for a larger network2 – some of the members of which were –
- Colonel James Monroe (who later joined the CIA)
- Albert Biderman, a sociologist
- Robert J. Lifton and Herman Sander, air force psychiatrists
- Harold Wolff and Lawrence Hinkle at Cornell
- John Gittinger, CIA psychologist
- Herbert Zimmer
- Edgar Schein
Now that particular group was ALL about legitimizing the ‘communist brainwashing’ threat.
At the same time as the Navy and the Air Force, the CIA was also conducting “uncontrolled” mind control research in the late 1940’s. A CIA Memo (written in June 1951, the same month as “the meeting” in Montreal) says:
C.I.A. interest is in the specific subject of devising scientific methods for controlling the minds of individuals. And so, in the late 1940′s some essentially uncontrolled experimentation was begun by various people within the C.I.A.
Dr. John Gittinger started working for the CIA in 1950, along with CIA/Air Force intelligence agent James Monroe and Lawrence Hinkle – specifically to do brainwashing. Dr. Gittinger supported both visible prongs of the “devils fork” – the strenuous brainwashing techniques and the more palatable “personality testing”, psychological assessment angle.
The “devils fork” or blivet is an optical illusion meant to mess with your head.
Now, here’s the thing. Just after the Mindsentzy trial, the next thing you know… the treatment the Russian’s supposedly did was given a name and a source – it was blamed on China and called brainwashing by a CIA propagandist.
They blamed it on China…that’s rich. Especially considering what both the Vatican and the British had been doing to China for over two hundred years by then. Drugging their people with opium, literally forcing them to allow the trade at gunpoint (or cannon point) destroying their culture.
Basically doing every damn thing, only worse, as they were now inventing that China was a ‘threat’ about!
The first time that the public starts getting PR Blitzed in a big way about this dastardly Chinese brainwashing, was in 1951. In my library article tracking the actual origins of the term brainwashing, I included the following news article.
Lincoln Star – February 29, 1951 ‘Brain Washing’ Chinese Tactic
See right at the top, that acronyma NANA?
It stands for North American Newspaper Alliance, an alliance of the major newspapers in America, which had just been purchased by a “small group of investors” led by Ernest Cuneo and Ivar Bryce just before this blatant propaganda article came out.
Why is that important?
Because both Ernest Cuneo and Ivar Bryce were formerly associated with two special Intelligence organizations formed before and during WWII – the British Security Coordination and the OSS – which all rolled right on over into becoming the CIA in 1947. (See OSS personnel database which shows Cuneo listed)
As if that wasn’t bad enough as to blatant British/Vatican slavemaster control over the American press, they had Ian Fleming made the European Vice President! Thereby covering all their bases as far as propaganda went, because Fleming had played a highly instrumental role in forming up America’s intelligence services, first called the Office of the Coordinator of Information (which Bill Donovan headed) then called the OSS, then became the CIA – making him all about the slavemaster goals and not America’s.
For a pretty complete accounting of just what a nasty organization this British Security Coordination was, I have a whole series of library articles (not completed yet) on the subject.
See British Security Coordination Compendium – by Virginia McClaughry
Ivar Bryce is a particularly bad connection because that weasely little man is who fabricated the so-called Hitler map that President Roosevelt knew was fabricated and read out a speech about it live to the American public to – get this – get America to go fight another stupid slavemaster war over drugs, money and power (for them) – you know it as WWII.
For a complete documentation of details concerning this heinous activity by Ivar, which he did end up revealing eventually (at least) please see my post titled: Who Originally Forged The Hitler Map That President Roosevelt Used To Get America Into WWII? – Ivar Bryce
Watch President Roosevelt LIE about this map on national camera on October 27th, 1941.
Now look at the headline of the news article again – it says ‘Brain Washing’ Chinese Tactic.
That is 100 percent false.
My library article about this proves that not only was the idea was already in play in Italy almost a decade earlier, but that there was a press article about tv-radio brain washing campaigns in America almost five years earlier!
This makes more sense that they would be propagandizing about it then, because that’s exactly when they decided who their new ‘enemy’ was going to be.
The text in the news article reads –
“Brain washing” is the term Chinese use to describe the treatment Chinese communists have been giving returned American prisoners of war.
No, it isn’t.
The Chinese had no such term – the intelligence propagandists of NANA just made it up.
Look at what the description of what brainwashing supposedly is –
It is a set of lectures and indoctrination talks which the reds give individual prisoners to convince them that “capitalists” are all wrong and communists are their real friends in Korea.
Sounds rather mild, if you ask me, compared to what people like Ewen Cameron were already doing to people in the name of concern about ‘the brainwashing threat’ from communists.
But, look when the article was – February 29, 1951.
That’s a lot more significant, because just a month later is when an interesting CIA document comes into play.
Devilish new process…this inhuman method for tampering with men’s minds and souls defies all laws of God or man. [American GI’s were in danger of being] laboratory rats in a diabolical scientific experiment.
Rear Admiral D.V. Gallery
“We Can Baffle the Brainwashers!”
Saturday Evening Post, 22 January 1955, 20, 91–98.
Oh, it was devilish alright, only it was ‘men of god’ primarily that were doing it!
Catholics, to be precise.
Miles Copeland, in his book Without Cloak and Dagger revealed that the majority of people in the CIA were Catholic.
So now that they have their concocted enemy ‘the communists‘ who are allegedly brainwashing people – in March 1951, the CIA initiated a “top secret” research program into “all aspects of special interrogation” through “exchange of information and coordination of related programs”.
(Central Intelligence Agency 1951, March 19 Subject: Special Interrogation Program. National Security Archive.).
– SCIENCE IN DACHAU’S SHADOW: HEBB, BEECHER, AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF CIA PSYCHOLOGICAL TORTURE AND MODERN MEDICAL ETHICS by Alfred W. McCoy, published in the Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 43(4), 401–417 Fall 2007 Published online in Wiley Interscience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/jhbs.20271 © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
See that coordination of related programs part?
That’s the infamous “meeting” we discussed earlier that would take place just a few months later at the Ritz Carlton in Montreal.
Montreal was extremely predominantly Catholic back then, something like over eighty percent of the population.
And I mean really Catholic, like old world inquisition Catholic.
Also note that it was only a month later (after Projects Bluebird/Artichoke was launched in March) that the Psychological Strategy Board was formed on April 4, 1951.
It’s important to note that you get accounts out there that completely mis-characterize who was the “boss” of who – usually landing it on top of the CIA.
Like this one –
Even before Sidney Gottlieb was appointed CIA’s chief of TSS Division (1953) to oversee MK-ULTRA mind control projects, he offered medical researchers whose skill and expertise the CIA sought, a golden opportunity since he had a sizable treasure chest to dispense. Funds started flowing secretly through CIA’s conduits — 15 foundations served as money funneling fronts. These included: the Society for the Study of Human Ecology, the Josiah Macy Foundation, Geschickter Fund for Medical Research, Office of Naval Research (ONR), the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations, and the Bureau of Social Science Research. (Marks. Manchurian Candidate, 1979; McCoy, Science in Dachau’s Shadow 2006) Government agencies also served as CIA conduits for mind control/ behavior modification experiments. These include: the Departments of Defense, Justice, Labor, Health Education and Welfare (HEW), National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), National Science Fund (NSF), Veterans Administration (VA), Law Enforcement Assistance (LEA), and others. (Glen Yeadon. Nazi Hydra, 2008)
Just that one little phrase “through CIA’s conduits” I’ll bet is instantly and commonly taken to mean that the CIA somehow controlled or masterminded these organizations in some way.
As you have just been learning, that would be absolutely false. Even the Allen Dulles idea of the Human Ecology Fund would never have been done at all if the PSB had not approved or even ordered it in the first place.
The CIA was ordered to do what it did. ALL of these front groups and funding conduits – a pretty accurate list in and of itself – were established, arranged, and/or controlled by much higher on the food chain people.
People such as the PSB board, the National Security Council, and William Webster and the DOD – who were in turn dancing to interests that you don’t see so easily, the usual suspects and pass-the-torchers of the Vatican and certain British families.
ANY psychological research or strategy was being coordinated by this PSB board, and that included Webster and the DOD.
That’s how big a deal it is.
Note: you can see further proof of it’s coordinating/decision process in action in my post about the recently declassified CIA Director’s Log.3
Searching for new routes to hide the Eugenics agenda
which in turn – is actually the same Age Old Slavemaster agenda
Psychological Strategy Board –
deeper down the rabbit hole
After World War II, the slavemasters realized that they couldn’t fight a traditional battle without destroying themselves in the process (nuclear weapons – radiation fallout etc.).
As we discussed, the shore story about why they were doing this and who the “enemy” was?
Their weapon of choice to “defeat” said enemy? Same as always, just with better toys.
Inquisition—->Eugenics—–>Psychological Warfare/Social Science.
…The minds of men… their wills must be drawn
– Pope Pius XI DIVINI REDEMPTORIS (On Atheistic Communism) 19 March 1937
….the Roman Pontiffs…have ever endeavored to break the…spirit of innovators…
– DIUTURNUM POPE LEO XIII ON THE ORIGIN OF CIVIL POWER, 29 June, 1881
…exterminate other evil opinions…
Pope Pius IX Quanta CuraCondemning Current Errors December 8, 1864.
But why Communism – why was that the choice?
Because it is a controlled opposition, one that was literally created as a kind of sick version of the principles that the American Revolution rested upon.
The American Revolution was NOT controlled by them, and that was the problem.
these men, who yearn for a shameless liberty
– Pope Gregory XVI “On Liberalism and Religious Indifferentism” Mirari Vos, dated August 15, 1832
These psychofucks were determined to BREAK the American mind, heart, spirit and soul.
To corrupt it. To divide it and turn it against itself.
In short – to do anything that would STOP any real opposition against them.
It is the manners and spirit of a people which preserve a republic in vigor.
A degeneracy in these is a canker which soon eats to the heart of its laws and constitution.
— Thomas Jefferson, Notes on Virginia. viii, 405. Ford ed., iii, 268. (1782.)
So, why were they really doing this – torturing and studying people?
Psychological help was being solicited to exploit “national vulnerabilities” in order to prevent insurgencies or destroy such movements if they were initiated.
This means that the real purpose, the real problem being solved was anyone, any country, that might even vaguely follow in the footsteps of the American Revolutionists.
People who were against their Priests and Kings rule the world insanity, as symbolized by the ancient Nesilim symbol – the double-headed eagle – which was the symbol of the Catholic Church/Holy Roman Empire, no less.
No of Chartres wrote to Pope Paschal II: “When kingdom and priesthood are as one, in complete accord, the world is well ruled…”
– IMMORTALE DEI, Pope Leo XIII, November 1, 1885
Particular leaders of the American Revolution were, in a very real sense, the ne plus ultra, the ultimate nemesis that both factions of the slavemasters began later working to position as COMMUNIST.
THAT is who they are trying to figure out how to break the spirit of under the guise of ‘psychological research’.
– – –
From 1945 to 1969 the DOD was the largest institutional sponsor of psychological research, and there was no close second (Darley, 1952; Lanier, 1949).1
IT funded the CIA.
September 10, 1951
The Senate Appropriations Committee has reported the Department of Defense appropriation for fiscal year 1952 to the Floor of the Senate. They have included the full amount of the sums requested for CIA in this appropriation.
This will eliminate the present necessity for a meeting with Senators O’Mahoney and Ferguson on. CIA appropriations for fiscal year 1952. 3 – page 12
The DOD, the Department of Defense, was where the ultra-unknown and secretive Defense Research Board was, where one William Webster would later be put in charge of coordinating ALL the secret experimentation of “mind control” between the U.S., Canada, and British intelligence concerns
It was William who would have been one of the main coordinating points as to funds being expended for this, and accordingly, underneath the DOD it was the Navy who was first granted largess through William.
Just one year after the war’s end, in 1947, the office of Naval Research had founded its “Psychological Sciences” research program.
The Office of Naval Research (ONR) became the first extramural research program of the DOD. Within two years of its initiation of the ONR research program, the Navy doled out 117 contracts at 58 universities under its newly founded Psychological Sciences research program (Page, 1954). 1
In the first five years of the post-war period, the ONR provided $2million per year, or $16 million in estimated equivalent 2008 dollars (e.e.), establishing this office as the greatest single source of funding for psychological research until the founding of the National Science Foundation (NSF) in 1950 (Darley, 1957).
The Army followed close behind –
The other major service branches soon followed the lead of the Navy. In the 1950’s, the Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences (ARI) expanded greatly both its intramural and extramural scope. The ARI created three laboratories that employed psychologists to study human factors, work that was not only valuable in the Gulf War, but also has application beyond the military (Krueger, 2006). The Walter Reed ARI at its height had more than 100 research behavioral scientists.1
Remember, these are all under the auspices of DOD funding, with William Webster doing what he does behind-the-scenes.
Then, we get the National Science Foundation (NSF) being created in 1950 to be the conduit for funding by the combined intelligence interests of British/Vatican slavemasters and their “juniors” in America. It is one of the lesser known about institutions that was used to channel CIA and DOD funds into covert “academics” programs and tasks, as well as funneling money in tandem with MKULTRA funds later on.
As early as 1950 a contract worth $300,000 (e.e. $2.4 million) was given through the ONR to an unnamed “Department of Psychology.” 1
It outpaced the Office of Naval Research and actually became the largest source of funding of psychological research, second only to the DOD Office of Naval Research/CIA. (see earlier quote)
One of the first things the NSF did was to do a study of where the funding was coming from for “social sciences”.
Why they were asked to do this, makes a sort of twisted sense considering it was about to take over a lot of that funding, but what is extremely interesting is that the NSF documented that the DOD spent more during the Korean War (1950-1953) than all other agencies combined.
During the Korean War, the DOD spent more on social science research than all other federal agencies combined (NSF, 1951-52). The earliest available data on government funding of the social sciences was a NSF study in 1952 that found that 96% of the expenditures came from the military. These funds went not only to academic researchers in universities but also to the Federal Contract Research Centers (FCRCs) that proliferated after the War, nominally affiliated with universities, but relying almost exclusively on DOD grants (Watson, 1978). Employment in these organizations tripled between 1954 and 1965 with overall budget increases of 500% during that period (Crawford &Biderman, 1969). The most well-known of these institutions is the RAND Corporation, but the Special Operations Research Office (SORO) also played a major role in psychological research during the Cold War. 1
Within a year of the beginning of the Korean “war” – a war which I find highly convenient to the slavemaster purposes of creating their chosen “enemy” of communism – is when we have that secret meeting at the Ritz Carlton in June 1951. This also could be said to mark the start of hiding their infiltration of American communities under “social science” courses and “experts”.
Among the outcomes of this pivotal meeting was a CIA funded psychological research program to be conducted at major American universities.
The CIA [and DOD] ties of the academic researchers were hidden, and because Helms destroyed the files, the identity and number of psychologists involved may never be known. 1
Now, besides the hundreds of millions flowing through the CIA, look at just how much was being spent on “psychology” research by the DOD.
By the 1960’s the DOD was spending almost all of its $15 million ($120 million 2008 dollars) annual social science research budget on psychology. To appreciate the importance of this figure, consider that it is more than the entire DOD Research and Development budget in the pre-war years. By the end of the sixties, the DOD spent approximately $40 million annually ($320 million 2008 dollars) on psychological research.1
In the DOD’s own words it specifically funneled funding to various agencies to disguise CIA MKULTRA medical research programs. Bear in mind that this 1977 document is written by someone who clearly does not have all documents to hand (or knowledge) because several of the things that are distanced from have, in fact, been proven to have actually been funded by the DOD.
– – –
The ‘Communist Brainwashing’ Research front
Albuquerque Journal Wed June 17 1970
Some of our cast of characters.
Leonard Berkowitz, Martin T Orne and Salvatore Maddi
Robert Lifton, Louis Jolyon West and Martin Orne
during the 1976 Patricia Hearst trial
Orne and Lifton
All of the above, with the exception of the attorney Bailey, would be involved in one way or another in continuing to perpetrate this hoax of ‘brainwashing’.
Particularly Robert Lifton was in on this from literally the very beginning. You could say that his job was to create the hysteria over the alleged secret psychological methods of the Soviets which was then used as a justification for spending several billion dollars between 1950 and 1963 on mind control programs (McCoy, 2006).1
Who were these people, besides Lifton, that were hired to help promote the lie of this “brainwashing” and were then fairly quickly tasked to switch over to invent and test real methods – so called – of mind control aspects of “group” programming? Which was the real focus and concern, by the way, of any of this.
Well, besides a Yale professor who was probably the first visible social science slavemaster puppet, we get the Psychological Strategy Board mandating the CIA to do a little recruiting, get a nice fall guy going who would in turn create a nice, innocuous-sounding front group to start channeling CIA funds into under Sydney Gottlieb’s technical services “projects”.
Allen Dulles convinced his close friend, the Cornell neuropsychiatrist Dr. Harold Wolff, to form The Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology, later renamed The Human Ecology Fund (HEF), at Cornell Medical Center to study mind control techniques with CIA funding. Wolff, along with his partner, Dr. Lawrence Hinkle, received $5 million ($40 million e.e.) for a three year project involving the testing of drugs and the study of cultural differences. Hinkle and Wolff formed a group that included the psychologist Col. James Monroe, former head of the Psychological Warfare Research Division of the Air Force, and CIA psychologist John Gittinger. The group did a comprehensive study of Communist mind control techniques, and found the Communist regimes used primarily sleep deprivation and forced standing to coerce captives (Greenfield, 1977). 1
These people were also funded by the ARI, the NSF, and DOD funds – a lot more money was put into it than the over-focus on the CIA has tended to distract from.
This is where people like Martin Orne, Louis Jolyon West, Robert Lifton, and a young Margaret Singer entered the picture.
In 1947 the OSS became the CIA, and within 5 months the newly named intelligence agency was authorized for propaganda including psychological operations for which it immediately began recruiting psychologists to spread the belief, promoted by the CIA within America’s borders, that –
…the Communist regimes in the Soviet Union and China had invented secret, sophisticated mind control techniques, although the agency knew the contention was unfounded (McCoy, 2006, p.34). 1
They took one of their recruited psychologists, Yale professor and later APA president Irving L. Janis (1949) and had him publicly endorse this fear to lend it legitimacy. He was the first.
By the time President Truman was in office, the new battleground had been propagandized to be “winning the hearts and minds of people”. Accordingly, U.S. foreign policy began to shift from traditional warfare to psychological warfare, which in many ways is far more destructive but not to them – and that’s the key.
prevent the spread of ‘Communism’…
The Psychological Strategy Board (PSB) was set up to produce propaganda that would win the opinion of people around the world and prevent the spread of Communism.
That right there, tells you that something entirely else is up with this. Not that there weren’t any “soviets spreading communism”, there were, but it’s just not that simple with these guys. Especially when you consider the all-important clear indicator by various Catholic popes that American Independence was called communism. American ideals were called communism.
Communism is a controlled opposition operation.
It is fought against pseudo representations of American forefathers, and worse, this battle is often pitched (PR-wise) as democracy fighting against communism. These people are not democratic in the sense of our forefathers.
They are monarchism posing as democracy.
If you understand that a lot of what goes on in the world begins to make sense.
The only thing even vaguely “democratic” about these people is that they finally realized that without the rest of humanity willingly doing their bidding? All their plans come to naught.
Put simply, they need us.
That is their ONLY interest in “the people” – is tricking them into serving them.
According to a report by the State Department, “convincing a foreign official is less important than carrying an issue over his head to his people” as the people will have a greater influence on the official’s action.
The PSB was specifically formed to create propaganda which ‘subconsciously’ turned people towards democracy. This is yet another example of the 200+ year conspiracy that I documented as being passed down from generation to generation, but they were NOT, repeat NOT turning people towards democracy as conceived by America’s Founding fathers.
They were trying to ‘subconciously’ turn people towards their monarchy posing as ‘democracy’ – democracy as redefined by them.
When the PSB was formed in 1951, they created a working definition for psychological warfare. They defined it as: any nonmilitary action which influenced public opinion or foreign policy interest.
That would include drugs, electro-shock “therapy”, lobotomies, leukotomies, GMO foods (weaken the body) etc. etc, as well as “crowd” techniques in more modern times, bullying on the internet, dog-piling, etc. etc., as well as less obvious things like offering or withholding trade and economic aid, cultural and educational exchange, and also outright threats to use force.
That is not a complete list by any means, just some examples.
Anything that would –
….break the…spirit of innovators…
– DIUTURNUM POPE LEO XIII ON THE ORIGIN OF CIVIL POWER, 29 June, 1881
and draw their wills.
The PSB began to come up with what are often called buzzwords for Diplomats and Politicians to use. Buzzwords were carefully selected words and phrases meant to influence domestic and international opinion.
An example back then, was the buzzword ‘containment’ because it allowed the slavemasters to look like – and it was only an apparency – that their objectives towards the rest of the world were “noble, restrained and fundamentally defensive.”
We’re only defending ourselves, poor widdle innocent put-upon us…you can practically feel the silent-film level of over-acted pathos.
Oh, the sad nobility of it all.
Just makes you want to fall right in lockstep. Not.
It does deserve a little going over, considering the controlled opposition aspect of the “Soviet threat”, just to see what the supposedly dastardly communists were being fed to do to keep up their end of this supposed “fight”.
One of THE best examples, and one that is still used today by next-gen propagandists and dupes who don’t realize what they are forwarding, was a PR campaign beginning January 21, 1951.
Are you familiar with the terms “Big Pharma” or the the idea that it is corporations that are the problem? How about that it is capitalism that is the problem?
Well, those are all regurgitated from the same basic source – a controlled opposition operation.
The campaign of 1951 was the latest version, wherein you had the “Soviet Union” (that wasn’t the true source) targeting the “corruption of big businesses” in America, accusing them – the corporations – of attempting to dominate the world.
You see how lame, how incomplete that is. That’s one of the hallmarks of a slavemaster controlled opposition campaign. Then we have our alter-hero, equally lame, of the communists as the champions trying to overthrow the capitalists!!
Wow! It’s a veritable punch-and-judy puppet show.
This kind of crap was then, surprise surprise, “adopted” by the U.S. as the same psychological warfare strategy they needed to do to win the hearts and minds of people.
I’m sure you’re absolutely shocked that a controlled opposition operation just happened to be the excuse that was needed to launch the magically the same techniques of psychological warfare on the entire world. Whoever could have seen that one coming?
“A handy rule for arousing hate is, if at first they do not enrage, use an atrocity. It has been employed with unvarying success in every conflict known to man.
– Lasswell, 1927 Propaganda Technique in World War, You can view the 1938 reprint at Hathitrust.
Now take a look at this 1911 drawing. Look very closely at it.
Note how at first it almost seems to be a somewhat accurate depiction, until you start looking closer. Then you notice little points here and there that are that same kind of lame “communist” crap – aka we HATE democracy – starts showing up and polluting the whole thing.
Interesting, isn’t it?
The dead giveaway, well, one of them anyway, is down at the bottom. The pyramid of capitalism. Someone really screwed up with that one. It practically screams classic Catholic propaganda.
So much so, even the current Pope (Pope Francis) still exhorts against the very same lines! An article by Travis Gettys from 2013 is titled: Pope Francis rips capitalism.
In it, Gettys says that: The pope lamented that people had “calmly accepted (the) dominion” of money over themselves and society.
Look at what’s on the top of the pyramid in that picture above. See it?
Gettys is quoting from an encyclical by Francis titled: Evangelli Gaudium (Joy of Gospel) of which there a truly extraordinary amount of propagandizing statements that with even a brief perusal, I’m sure many of you who are familiar with our deeper history work here will easily recognize.
But there are a number of interesting new “put downs” such as this one, for example –
“This involves not only recognizing and discerning spirits, but also – and this is decisive – choosing movements of the spirit of good and rejecting those of the spirit of evil.”
And at whose knee did humanity learn this particular attitude of USING people that this Pope is pretending to decry –
“Human beings are themselves considered consumer goods to be used…”
Perhaps the internet-based (and strangely dominated by Catholics) “Anonymous” group wasn’t so innocently formed after all because check out this loaded statement –
“We are in an age of knowledge and information, which has led to new and often anonymous kinds of power.”
Controlled opposition on the internet, anyone?
And finally, although there are many more such examples to choose from, I’d like to show you one other one that is exactly on point to prove that so-called “communist” propaganda is clearly Catholic-backed in oh so many ways.
This one –
“…corruption and self-serving tax evasion, which have taken on worldwide dimensions.”
With the Catholic church and the British crown being literally at the utter apex of money-hoarders who do not pay taxes – the inherent hypocrisy in the above accusation is on extreme overload.
Notice how Gettys summarizes the above, and how he, like the Pope, places the blame everywhere but on these role models extraordinaire. Themselves.
“The pope noted that corporations and individuals were failing to pay taxes in nations around the world, depriving governments of funding needed to serve all their citizens.”
Extraordinary, isn’t it?
If you review the supposed ‘communist’ campaign started in January 1951, that was then used as the justification for the formation of the Psychological Strategy Board or PSB, it is just so crystal clear what was really going on here. Targeting the “corruption of big businesses” in America, accusing the corporations of attempting to dominate the world.
And the now rhetorical question – Whom are they forever trying to distract from?
Has an answer.
Note: The PSB also launched specific radio programs, utilizing programs such as Voice of America to laud America’s “successes” and portray the U.S. as a superior nation. Each country targeted had a different program aimed on them that was supposed to attract them to “democracy” – which really wasn’t, not in these people’s hands it wasn’t.
A Secret CIA Project
The Encyclopedia of Cold War Politics (page 201) tells us that the first “real” head or chairman of the PSB was actually Walter Bedell Smith, who also happened to be the head of the CIA at that same time. He was head of the CIA from 1950 to 1953, when he resigned.
Pretty cozy arrangement, that.
Bedell Smith during WWII (center)
In this final report of the Senate Committee (Frank Church) it was documented that Bedell-Smith, while head of the CIA, created something called the Office of National Estimates or ONE.
That same report documents some other interesting and relevant points as to what was the climate in which this PSB – and our Doctrinal Program guy George Morgan – was operating.
Within a year, actually just about 5 months later after the passage of the National Security Act (Sept. 18, 1947) this report documents that the CIA was charged with “the conduct of covert psychological, political, paramilitary, and economic activities.”
As mentioned earlier, the CIA is often blamed as “the” source for this kind of behavior, that just is not the truth.
This direction the CIA was told to go in was actually initiated by a bunch of slavemaster puppets of British and Vatican interests. Among them were Secretary of War James Patterson, Secretary of Defense James Forrestal, Secretary of State George Marshall, and George Kennan, Director of the State Department’s Policy Planning Staff.
You see, prior to 1948, CIA covert operations were largely confined to psychological warfare, and almost all were media-related. These activities included the use of false publications, “black” radio, and subsidies to publications.
But in 1948, the changes began. National Security Council directive NSC 10/1 went into effect on June 18, 1948. Besides establishing a purely advisory panel called the “10/2 Panel,” this is when some of the dirtier activities were specifically mandated to the CIA.
Three other categories of covert activity were added to the psychological warfare mission: political warfare, economic warfare and preventive “direct action”. It is very important that you understand that the last one, direct action, is when support for FRONT organizations was mandated as well as support for guerillas and sabotage.
Now, that 1948 directive complete with its “direct action” covert operations, was then expanded in 1951 under the new NSC 10/5 directive on October 23, 1951. This directive took all those activities and authorized the expansion of them to be done world-wide, plus changed the previous “policy coordination” procedures.
In plain speak, the newly formed PSB board (April 1951) was the only decision point on choosing what covert psychological warfare activities (including direct action) would be done.
This means that the PSB board would approve or even order the creation of and/or use of existing organizations as front groups.
Such as, say, L. Ron Hubbard and the Dianetics Research group started in 1950 whose board of directors was staffed with FBI and OSS agents.
See From The FDA Files – L. Ron Hubbard’s OSS/CIA Connection: Charles Parker Morgan and there was also a CIA agent mixed up in all this as well – see Scientology Roots chapter 9-2 Hubbard’s Lifelong Intelligence Career for discussion of CIA contract (deep cover non “open”) agent John Starr Cooke who was funneling CIA and Rockefeller money into this initial dianetics organization.
Just to further illustrate how important this PSB really was, the head of the CIA had to coordinate any covert project approvals with the PSB!
(Which continued even when it had been renamed the Operations Coordinating board along the way in 1953, don’t forget)
Just to leave no doubt whatsoever in your mind here, check out this just added to the CIA Reading Room document where the director of the PSB, George Morgan, discusses that a letter from Nelson Rockefeller dated March 21, 1953 needed to be taken up at the next meeting.
LOOK at what it says in the last paragraph –
Our understanding is that the Central Intelligence Agency is responsible to the NSC but that its programs are cleared with the Strategy Board.
See that? Clear as a bell, and basically NO ONE out there even knows this board’s real function or power that it had!
It was in 1955 that two other NSC directives were put in place, but it is the second of the two that had far-reaching implications and remained in place all the way until February of 1970.
Understand now, that this was official U.S. policy for fifteen years.
This directive reiterated previous NSC statements that the overt foreign activities of the U.S. Government should be “supplemented by covert operations.”
When you read the below item, notice how it frames the purpose of covert operations entirely in terms of opposition to “International Communism”.
A completely invented “enemy” meant to corral in underneath that label anyone who was or even could be a threat to slavemaster plans.
This over-arcing NSC directive stated, in part, that the CIA was authorized to:
- Create and exploit problems for International Communism.
- Discredit International Communism, and reduce the strength of its parties and organization.
- Reduce International Communist control over any areas of the world.
- Strengthen the orientation toward the United States of the nations of the free world, accentuate, wherever possible, the identity of interest between such nations and the United States as well as favoring, where appropriate, those groups
genuinely advocating or believing in the advancement of such mutual interests, and increase the capacity and will of such peoples and nations to resist International Communism.
In accordance with established policies, and to the extent practicable in areas dominated or threatened by International
Communism, the CIA was mandated to:
- develop underground resistance and facilitate covert and guerrilla operations. . . .
The directive dealt with means as well as ends:
Specifically, such [covert action] operations shall include any covert activities related to:
- political action,
- economic warfare,
- preventive direct action, including sabotage, anti-sabotage, demolition, escape and evasion and evacuation measures; subversion against hostile states or groups including assistance to underground resistance movements, guerrillas and refugee liberation groups; support of indigenous and anti-communist elements in threatened countries of the free world; deception plans and operations and all compatible activities necessary to accomplish the foregoing.
That last one would include –
In fact, all manner of horrifying and disgusting things that were done in the name of “saving the world from communism” came under that nasty, nasty clause.
I’ll bet they even told people they were being “patriotic” in doing them – to add further insult to injury of our Constitution and Bill of Rights, not to mention basic human rights.
Sick, sick, sick.
Now, as I mentioned earlier, the PSB rolled on over into the “new” organization called the Operations Coordinating Board (OCB). This replaced the Psychological Strategy Board of the NSC on September 2, 1953.
George Morgan’s Doctrinal Program had just been instituted in July, and it rolled right on over to be underneath the new OCB. Here’s some CIA documents I have assembled concerning what else was going on with the PSB in 1953.
The first is a document showing that George Morgan was actually the acting director of the PSB by that time.
- MEMORANDUM OF INFORMAL PSB MEETING, JULY 1, 1953 FROM GEORGE A. MORGAN RDP80R01731R003300390009-9
This one is actually from a little earlier, Monday, 8 December 1952, but its important because it shows that various CIA figures of interest (such as Frank Wisner) were all present for the meeting. It lists that Smith, Dulles, Wisner, Wolf, Hedden, Amory and Earman are present.
- [Blacked Out] Deputies Meeting on Monday, 8 December 1952.
On page 2, Allen Dulles discussed that George Morgan was anxious to “set up a group” to study a program of psychological preparation for Stalin’s passage from power, clearly illustrating the tight connection between the PSB and the CIA.
This one also shows that tight connection.
It’s about a PSB meeting that was held on 28 May, 1953 in the Office of the Deputy Secretary of Defense. Listed as present were Jackson (the presidents advisor), Smith, head of the CIA, Kyes, Dulles (Allen) and Morgan.
- MEMORANDUM OF INFORMAL PSB MEETING, May 28, 1953 FROM GEORGE A. MORGAN
Here’s one showing that George, as PSB director, was actually involved with creating the new OCB. See Agenda Item 5.
- MEMORANDUM OF INFORMAL PSB MEETING, AUGUST 5, 1953 FROM GEORGE A. MORGAN RDP80R01731R003300390003-5
Here’s a letter to the President from George Morgan, March 1953, confirming the election of Mr. C.D. Jackson (then the presidents personal advisor) to the board and also electing him as chairman, as requested. Signed George A. Morgan
- LETTER TO MR. PRESIDENT FROM GEORGE A. MORGAN RDP80R01731R003300190036-1
Here’s a Psychological Strategy Board memorandum from John M Anspacher to George A. Morgan, 17 June 1953, concerning riots in East Berlin.
This one, from 1954, shows what I mentioned earlier, that George Morgan and the NSC functions of the PSB rolled right on over into the new OCB (Operations Coordinating Board).
- MEMORANDUM FOR [blacked out] Office of the DD/I, dated 19 July 1954, Subject:NSC 170/1.
It refers to a meeting of the OCB on June 16th, regarding the OCB Working Group and what it was doing about the ROK – Republic of Korea and “future action” it might do. George Morgan is involved with this.
NSC directive 170/1 was specifically about Korea, and the following documents show clear CIA involvement with controlling/directing the government of Korea and that the CIA had operatives placed both within and around that government.
The first is a Memorandum For: Director of Central Intelligence; Subject CIA Annex to Progress Report on NSC 170/1 – Korea dated 5 April 1954.
Largely blacked out, it still reveals that there was “planning” of the carrying out of “several courses of action” that the CIA had been doing in the ROK.
Another document from the same day details a Progress Report on NSC 1701 in Korea. Special assistant to the President on the ROK, Robert Cutler is mentioned, as well as a summary of the “CIA Annex” – which means their cover ops in the area had been attached, and it mentions that a longer briefing memorandum that reported the CIA activities in Korea in greater detail had also been included – none of which have been released by the CIA yet.
A more detailed (and less redacted report) was declassified by the CIA only recently. It details that on March 26, 1954 a Progress Report on NSC 170/1 “U.S. Objectives and Courses of Action in Korea” had been submitted to the the Operations Coordinating Board, the replacement for the Psychological Strategy Board. The report begins on page 4.
Note the reference to Annex A on the cover letter.
Note point 8 of page 4 – A separate report on covert operations will be made to the Board.
Note Point B. Para. 6, that “ROK capability for unilateral action must be recognized and plans therefore kept current and coordinated.”
Page 5 refers to concern about an upcoming period of “difficult relations” in May or June of 1954. It also refers to concern about “Preventing or Countering the Resumption of Fighting by the ROK”.
Page 7 again mentions Covert Operations, in this case meaning those falling under the category of ACHIEVING A POSITION OF STRENGTH IN KOREA.
Page 9 refers to improving relations between Korea and Japan – Prime Minister Yoshida.
Page 9 also refers to the CIA goal is to “secure Republic of Korea cooperation….to develop a coordinated position consistent with U.S. objectives and interests.”
Appendix B documents that on March 6, 1954, Korean President Syngman Rhee – himself a CIA asset – wrote a letter to President Eisenhower, essentially threatening that “he might take unilateral action to unite Korea“. Which is interesting considering his actual role as a slavemaster puppet president. He was totally controlled by the CIA and military intelligence. (See CIA Director’s Log post for much more about him)
Rhee – May 1, 1951
Preston Goodfellow deputy director of the OSS during WWII “was the official in charge of the American operation that moved Syngman Rhee into Korea in 1945.“
After the war he headed the mysterious “Overseas Reconstruction Committee” and was involved in tungsten deals with the World Commerce Corporation.
– quotes from book Drug Control Policy: Essays in Historical and Comparative Perspective by William O. Walker, p. 104; also see NY Times obituary of 1973 showing Goodfellow was head of this Overseas Reconstruction Committee. Also see this August 29, 1954 letter from Goodfellow to Rhee. (click to enlarge image)
Continuing now –
In another document also dated 5 April 1954, it discusses the CIA Annex progress report. It starts out mentioned that one way was under GINGES, which had a CIA rep in it
Point 2 specifically documents that the CIA has placed specific assets (agents) in place within the ROK in order to secure “prompt warning” of anything the ROK does that the U.S. doesn’t want.
In yet another document from the same day regarding NSD 170/1 Korea, there is a very veiled statement that “plans developed in the field relieved CIA of any responsibility for trying to prevent unilateral action on the part of the ROKs”.
I don’t know about you, but that sounds vaguely assassination oriented to me.
Again, that one is another document that refers to “CIA activities” in Korea being attached to this report, but still not revealed even now.
Kind of keep those documents in the back of your mind, because they have bearing on why you would have the Korean CIA working with the American CIA to establish a deviationist movement as an espionage and money-laundering front, as well as a “doctrinal program” experimentation and study point – aka the Unification Church.
Before we start to examine that “Annex B” doctrinal program more closely, I’d like to point your attention to that here’s a document from 1959 that shows that George Morgan was still working with the CIA, so this is definitely a continuing thing here.
- Office Memorandum from R.W. Komer CIA to George Morgan, Rm 55, Dept. of State dated 28 March 1959.
The Doctrinal Program
The documents –
In the first document, George Morgan’s outline was based upon a paper that he says was “prepared and unanimously approved ‘by a PSB Panel established by the Board at its Fifteenth Meeting on September 11, 1952.” He then explains that the purpose of it was “to study the problem of doctrinal warfare, specifically as directed against Soviet doctrine, and to make recommendations for U.S. action.”
Under point 1, he discusses that the goal is “to create confusion, doubts and loss of confidence in the accepted thought patterns” of basically anyone deemed to be “under Communist influence.”
Under point b, he discusses that this doctrinal program is meant to foster a long-term intellectual movement of which the primary goal is to: break down world-wide doctrinaire thought patterns which have provided a fertile intellectual basis for Cornmunist and other doctrines hostile to American objectives.
That’s quite a loaded statement, when you think about it. That could literally be anything that these people have decided is “hostile”. And…to American objectives?
What the heck does that even mean?
If you skip down to page 6 you’ll see that means America, CIA and DIA-wise apparently, which in turn would link right back on up to that secretive coalition formed in 1951, whose goal I believe is well-expressed by Morgan in his point c: encourage universal acceptance of the philosophy and spirit of the Free World.
That would mean..
NO DISAGREEMENT ALLOWED.
That sounds rather un-free to me.
And most definitely slavemaster in actual origin.
It is important to note that “the Free World” was a chosen buzzword by Morgan and the PSB. Such an oxymoron with these people. It’s just not even close to what they are really like, what they really had in mind. We should probably add that to the Slavemaster dictionary of terms it’s that badly cloaked and secretly re-defined.
Skipping down to page 10, it gets into the meat-and-potatoes of the plan. On page 11, Morgan proposes covertly routing their funding through the National Science Foundation (NSF) because: “it pro-rates funds over several years since its activities are not restricted by fiscal years.” Fancy-talk for we can hide it longer there.
He also points out what he thinks is another plus for this NSF, the fact that it provides an already existing cover of “lines” into universities that would, as Morgan puts it, “make the establishment of a doctrinal institute easier and more effective.”
And…there was the added bonus of that after the “reputation was established” – fancy speak for INTELLIGENCE COVER laid in – Morgan suggests that then they could happily have some un-named “private foundations” take over funding the Institute.
On page 14 he asks for a cool million dollars to get the ball rolling, so you can see the scope of what this plan was meant to encompass, and since his plan got approved, there’s no reason to think he didn’t get it either. (although I can’t be 100 percent positive).
Morgan then goes on at some length of the different ways they could get people at universities to do studies and submit research papers on particular areas of interest they wanted, especially lesser known points of how the “communists” influence peoples minds.
His second part of his proposal goes into all the kinds of books they need to do, but on page 17 he decides to provide some definitions for key terms. One of which is the doctrinal program where he defines the target: “the doctrinal program is directed at a specifically defined group, rather than at the mass.”
Under Target of the Doctrinal Program point c is very interesting. It says –
Hence the major target of the doctrinal program is the developed, articulate mind. This mind, engaged in developing concepts and rationalizations and capable of projecting the same to others, possesses the ability to classify, analyze and synthesize. The developed mind contains a store of knowledge, prejudices, opinions, predispositions, and traditional use patterns of these elements. It is characterized by an active urge to present to others the conclusions of its mental processes.
Their targets are no dummies, in other words.
And, while in his next point he is willing to admit that this kind of person can be found in all walks of life, he does make this statement: “but members of the elite most generally possess developed minds.”
He clarifies though that: “Even though the developed mind is more frequent among the influential class, it is not a man’s position, however, but his proficiency in using his mind, which designates him as a proper target for the doctrinal program.”
OK, so this “elite” then, are actually simply smart people who know how to think.
He then very carefully words what they want to do with us smarties.
The doctrinal program is the consciously planned effort to bring this elite into contact with thought-stimulating materials which will interpret that elite’s environmental ideologies into a pattern which will prepare those intellectuals to accept an attitude favorable to, or predisposing this elite towards the philosophy held by the planners of the doctrinal program.
Well, if that isn’t the fanciest way that I’ve heard in a while, for getting around saying they want to pull a classic bait-and-switch. By using our own interests as the BAIT and then once we are hooked they SWITCH to an attitude they want us to have.
And why do they want to hook us smarties so badly?
Morgan tells us that’s because we “carry a weight and influence in forming, or at least predisposing, the attitudes and opinions of the opinion-moulding leaders in an area.”
Finally, in a separate document concerning “Annex B” – which is the seriously secret part of the plan – he details some rather key elements to my topic today.
This is dated June 16, 1953 and he starts out referring to that “the clandestine service has concurred” with this final draft – which means the CIA.
Look at page 2, these points in particular:
- Through non-attributable means encourage and provide for the publication, promotion and/or distribution of such doctrinal materials as would be valuable to this program but which would be substantially less valuable were they clearly attributable to the U.S. Government.
- Infiltrate individuals into foreign associations and organizations with doctrinal potential (newspapers, universities, etc.) to influence their actions and output.
- When appropriate stimulate through non-attributable means conferences and public forums on matters of a doctrinal nature.
- Create, when advisable, deviationist movements designed to split organizations promulgating hostile ideologies so long as they would not develop into a threat to U.S. security.
Deviationist movements intentionally created?
The head of Synanon once said:
With what I now know, it’s clear to me that he was actually revealing that he was very much in lockstep with the second phase of this coordinated program – the CULT experiments on “freestanding populations”.
You know, the Deviationist movements phase.
They did that?
They most definitely did.
It started secretly in the 1950’s and there are two very representative groups that I know of, that fit this desired criteria. One was the Unification Church (a spin off of Moral Re-Armament, but it wouldn’t get going until the 1960’s in the U.S.) the other was L. Ron Hubbard’s Dianetics/Scientology.
In fact, Hubbard’s senior CIA handler, Miles Copeland, was clearly well on-board carrying out the PSB’s Doctrinal Program ideas.
In Without Cloak and Dagger (1974) he writes:
Reminder: SPD stands for Special Projects Division, the euphemistic name for where the CIA was carrying out all those directives of the NSC we covered earlier. First named PPPM, it was founded in 1951 as part of the actions delineated necessary by the Psychological Strategy Board.
The SPD’s connections with international religious groups for purposes of aiding or supplementing espionage operations is almost as touchy an issue as its association with criminal rings.
To start with, Jewish and Catholic organizations are out. If it were learned that a case officer had lined up a Jewish or a Catholic organization for espionage purposes, half the agency would walk out. Contrary to some opinion, the CIA is definitely not a “WASP” organization; except for the units that deal with Middle East affairs, in which the Agency’s Jews prefer not to work, its percentages of Jews and Catholics are considerably higher than the national percentages.
Organizations stemming from other religions are fair game, however-or they were fair game until, one by one, many of them turned out to have fanatical adherents in the Agency.
For a while, Moral Re-Armament was believed to be a potentially valuable SPD asset. Then, just as the SPD was establishing contacts with Moral Re-Armament representatives it was learned that a deputy chief of one of the area divisions was a Moral ReArmer and would proceed to his Congressman, also a Moral Re-Armer, and blow the operation sky-high should it ever get off the ground. The same for Seventh-Day Adventists, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and half a dozen other religions with international followings.
“Before we tie into a religious group,” an SPD officer told me some time ago, “it’s got to be so offbeat that anyone in the Agency who belongs to it may be fired as a security risk-and that does not include the Holy Rollers.”
Miles says quite a bit more of interest to researchers, which you can read about in my post. L. Ron Hubbard went on to reverse course on what he was doing (pretending it was scientific research) and was tasked to now create and make an occult religion out of his experimental practices.
This was the Founding Church of Scientology, first named Church of Man’s Religion, formed in July of 1955. Hubbard had already been working with Mile’s junior, Bob Mandelstaam on choosing deep cover MI6 agent Crowley’s OTO model as part of the initial surveys undertaken to research what the predominantly Catholic survey public would respond to (this was done in 1954). You can read all about that particular part of Hubbard’s lifelong intelligence career in my post, and for the more comprehensive view please see Scientology Roots Chapter 9-2.
In the second part of George Morgan’s PSB proposal, if you recall, on page 17 he decides to provide some definitions for key terms. One of which is the doctrinal program where he defines the target: “the doctrinal program is directed at a specifically defined group, rather than at the mass.”
After the successful (and more secret experiments) involving groups like Hubbard’s, the PSB decided to expand out the ‘cult’ model even further.
But it was in the 1960′s that the idea of using these techniques on essentially freestanding populations was experimented with and the cults provided the laboratory setting for social influence processes where the people are not taken into complete physical custody.
– Lecture by Dr. Alan Scheflin, Professor of Law, Santa Clara University and author of the book “The Mind Manipulators” published November 30, 2008
The CULTS provided the lab setting for them to experiment with people who were not locked up in mental hospitals and prisons (their previous usual guinea pigs of choice).
Synanon, Scientology, Unification Church, the People’s Temple, any of you who got baited into becoming members?
You were literally lab rats.
Scientology, Synanon, SEED, and the then very small (in the U.S.) Young Oon Kim’s fledgling Unification Church group, three out of four of these (with the exception of SEED) had activities that were strongly based out of the San Francisco Bay area.
This was right at the time when the CIA’s George Hunter White was carrying out his “safe-house” LSD experiments in that area, as well as Louis Jolyon West’s little known CIA MKULTRA project – one where he and a friend pretended to be hippies in an apartment in Haight-Ashbury – as well as what Willis Harman was up to together with Tavistock man, Eric, over at SRI (Stanford Research Institute).
All of these “researches” actually were also billed as Cult research or “deviant” research – with any number of anthropologists and sociologists trying to give the real purposes of the research an outer credibility.
Look how closely this classic textbook on propaganda is following along with Morgan’s basic deviationist movement creation ideas.
The focus of propaganda on freestanding populations now, was not to modify ideas, but to provoke action. It was not to change adherence to a doctrine, but to make the individual cling irrationally to a process of action. It was not to lead to a choice, but to loosen the reflexes. It was not to transform an opinion, but to arouse an active and mythical belief.
– Propaganda: the Formation of Men’s Attitudes by Jacques Ellul, 1965. You can read it here.
Charles Dederich, L. Ron Hubbard, Jim Jones, Reverend Moon etc. etc., were all also working off the whole conditioned reflex/collective myth propaganda technique – part of, as CIA MKULTRA doctor Harold Wolff called it, “Psychological Warfare” (which was combined with duress of some kind, usually lack of sleep).
The two great routes that this sub-propaganda takes are the conditioned reflex and the myth.
- Propaganda tries first of all to create conditioned reflexes in the individual by training him so that certain words, signs, or symbols, even certain persons or facts, provoke unfailing reactions.
- On the other hand, the propagandist tries to create myths by which man will live, which respond to his sense of the sacred.
By “myth” we mean an all-encompassing, activating image a sort of vision of desirable objectives … Such an image pushes man to action precisely because it includes all that he feels is good, just, and true.
Only when conditioned reflexes have been created in a man and he lives in a collective myth can he be readily mobilized.
– Propaganda: the Formation of Men’s Attitudes by Jacques Ellul. You can read it here.
Note: You can read more specifics about how both Dedrich and Hubbard used similar Myths as part of their experimental brain-changing techniques in The Connection Between Synanon and Scientology – Part 7: When God Plots.
Now compare the following to Morgan’s basic Doctrinal Program lay out –
The Department of Health, Education, and Welfare uses “the following operational definition of behavorial modification: the systematic application of psychological and social principles to bring about desired changes in or to prevent development of certain ‘problematic’ behaviors and responses.“1
1 – Letter from Frank Arlucci, Acting Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, to Chairman Sam. J. Ervin, Jr. July 25, 1974, printed as Item I.A.26
– Individual Rights and the Federal Role in Behavior Modification; A Study Prepared by the Staff of the Subcommittee on Constitutional Rights of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Ninety-Third Congress, Second Session; published November 1974; 655 pages. – found at Black Vault’s MKULTRA archives.
We know what those ‘certain problematic behaviors and responses” were. Anyone who was opposed to the slavemasters and their fictional version of the history of the world and ergo their ‘right’ to rule it.
But, hey, this is pretty amazing, eh?
Deviationist movements, indeed.
A Secret CIA Project
Ways the Secret Doctrinal Program Was Implemented.
To refresh your memory, George Morgan, in one of his Doctrinal Program proposal documents, had gone on at some length about the different ways they could get people at universities to do studies and submit research papers on particular areas of interest they wanted.
This will be the subject of what will be covered in my upcoming library article called: The Use of U.S. Universities to Conduct Eugenics Research and Intelligence Operations.
Morgan especially wanted research into the lesser known points of how the “communists” influence peoples minds. And again, ‘communists’ really means people that hold these things as the truth they are (that Popes and Brits have called ‘insanity’).
…liberty of conscience and worship is each man’s personal right, which ought to be legally proclaimed and asserted in every rightly constituted society; and that a right resides in the citizens to an absolute liberty, which should be restrained by no authority whether ecclesiastical or civil, whereby they may be able openly and publicly to manifest and declare any of their ideas whatever, either by word of mouth, by the press, or in any other way.
– Pope Gregory XVI “On Liberalism and Religious Indifferentism” Mirari Vos, dated August 15, 1832
There are a number of CIA studies and MKULTRA programs that did exactly that research after this proposal by Morgan. For example, studies of the ‘trance effect’ of various activities of the Pentecostal church were done in conjunction with the Brits (William Sargant, et. al, Battle for the Mind) barely 3 years later.
I actually dug up several of the declassified MKULTRA sub-projects I doubt anyone noticed before, let alone noticed or knew about their obvious connection to this Doctrinal Program, itself coming out of NSC directives concerning covert operations (the 1951 directive that we covered earlier, for example).
Remember – this PSB board had to approve any covert operations that the CIA was up to, after ordering them to do, or come up with ideas to carry out the NSC directives that mandated their activities in the first place.
Let’s have a look at some of these lesser known MKultra sub-projects, just so you can get a feel of what’s going on here. (Mkultra itself was first approved by the PSB in April of 1953).
The original source I found this first example at was Black Vault’s MKULTRA CD #1, Folder 17486. This is MkULTRA subproject 84 and here’s an OCR’d PDF I made of all its documents available –
This project had twin purposes, the other was experimenting with the “effectiveness” of Hypnosis. Its first purpose is described as the: Study of induction of high motivation in individuals by means of the development of specific interpersonal relationships.
*Remember – that is exactly what PSB director George Morgan’s Doctrinal Program was after. Why? Because he was concerned that us smart people held: “a weight and influence in forming, or at least predisposing, the attitudes and opinions of the opinion-moulding leaders in an area.”
The MKULTRA Briefing Book List of Subprojects and Brief Descriptions with documents PDF I made a while back describes on p. 239 that the “researcher” for subproject 84 was paid at least 55k for this subproject through the CIA front group Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology.
That same page specifically lists the “researcher” as WITTING which means he knew who was funding him. Page 391 mentions the location of this subproject initially as Harvard University.
The “researcher” for this subproject was none other than Martin Theodore Orne – one of our ‘communist brainwashing’ researchers right from the beginning with Robert Lifton etc. – and this particular projects funding apparently had actually begun in 1955. This project was going all the way through at least 1966, by the way.
He was also funded an additional 30k through his own personal “institute”.
*The above is from Buying a piece of anthropology Part 1: Human Ecology and unwitting anthropological research for the CIA by David Price, pages 398-40 – Note: 1962 was its continuation under the new ORD (Office of Research and Development) of the CIA.
Martin Orne was still in school at Harvard as a young doctoral student when he founded this Institute for Experimental Psychiatry in 1954.
As early as 1951, while at Harvard Dr. Orne conducted a study concluding that people under hypnosis cannot completely re-experience or relive moments from very early in their development. [note the lockstep there with L. Ron Hubbard’s Dianetics research]
This is, of course, exactly when the Psychological Strategy Board had been put into place. (April 1951).
Martin Theodore Orne 1948 – Harvard freshman pic
Clearly this ‘conclusion’ was at loggerheads with what L. Ron Hubbard was working on proving with his Dianetics Research Institute at the time.
Hubbard had actually already begun researching In 1945, the same year as the first DOD funding of psychological research after the war.
Methodology of Auditing Not Doingness and Occlusion, a L. Ron Hubbard lecture given on 4 August 1961 –
I’m sure that Freudian analysis can work because I can make it work. In 1945 I ruined more cases for the United States Navy. I ruined cases left and right by finding guys out on a park bench and pulling some second-dynamic traumatic experience, you see.
And then they were keeping records on the effect of hormones on 241 ex-prisoners of war and that sort of thing, you know? And of course, I had access to their records.
So of course they were running a wonderful test program for me. It must have cost the government hundreds of thousands of dollars. And they would write down in the records how it affected the patient on this day and how it affected him on the next day. And, oh, these were beautiful statistical records, so all you had to do was alter the psychic attitude of the patient toward sex, then go look at the records a few days later, and of course you had the direct test of what you were doing.
In addition, it was August 1945 that he moved into the mansion of Jack Parsons as part of a DOD investigation into rebellious atomic physicists in Pasadena. See Scientology Roots, Hubbard’s Lifelong Intelligence Career part one.
Reprise from earlier –
As early as 1950 a contract worth $300,000 (e.e. $2.4 million) was given through the ONR to an unnamed “Department of Psychology.” 1
Entering in one of our PSB sponsored “cults” here – or deviationist movements as George Morgan referred to it – Dianetics.
This was specifically the project of former Naval Reserve intelligence man L. Ron Hubbard, who was trained in London directly by the opium-smuggling family head Tony Keswick. Keswick had been put in charge of ALL intelligence activities related to the war (WWII) including getting Donovan and the OSS off the ground.
A little backstory here –
In August 1949, Rear Admiral Souers had proposed the creation of a special unit wherein Naval Reserve (intelligence) personnel would work for the CIA in a civilian capacity. CIA Director Roscoe Hillenkoetter wrote the following letter informing Rear Admiral Souers that his proposed special unit was not approved.
However, they went ahead and formed the special unit wherein Naval Reserve personnel worked for the CIA in a civilian capacity. On 27 February 1950, CIA Director Hillenkoetter attended the formal activation of the CIA Naval Reserve Unit. He noted it in his daily log book – I marked the log entry with a red arrow.
Note, it was exactly right here in time that L. Ron Hubbard was asked to resign the Navy and conduct mind control research as a civilian. Hubbard does what they asked, he resigns the Navy and as a civilian he then does mind control research.
So, back to Orne now –
It is a little known fact that while at Harvard, Martin Orne was acting as the head of an Office of Naval Research’s Committee on Hypnosis which had tried to put L. Ron Hubbard back in service as a Navy officer in 1950 for that work, not knowing that Hubbard was already on a CIA (Psychology Strategy Board) project as a civilian. Hubbard, with some help from someone higher than Orne was, side-stepped that* and continued on his civilian project.
*See Scientology Roots Chapter 9-1 Hubbards Lifelong Intelligence Career.
Hubbard’s literally pulling rank, so to speak, may have been the basis of the snitty-bitchy attitude that Orne and his buddy Dr. Louis Jolyon West often displayed toward Hubbard in the years after this.
One such significant clash between Hubbard’s Guardian Office intelligence staff and Orne/West happened during West’s campaign for the “behaviour modification” unit he wanted to create in California in 1974. This was also the time that West, Orne, and a number of little known other people staged a publicity event shilling for the “need” of this unit – better known as the Symbionese Liberation Army kidnapping of Patricia Hearst, the daughter of newspaper tycoon, Randolf Hearst. Later Patricia Hearst was given a mental examination by…you guessed it…two “experts” on brainwashing… Dr Louis Jolyn West and Dr Martin Orne, who were both involved in the Cult Awareness Network.
What a tangled mess, right?
Sometimes, with these people, it feels like you’re watching Abbott ad Costello doing their schtick – “Who’s on first?” What. “No, WHO is on first?” What.
Orne’s Institute for Experimental Psychiatry conducted hypnosis research (with LSD, ECT, etc.). Not only was he funded under both CIA Projects BLUEBIRD and ARTICHOKE, he was continued to be funded under MKULTRA.
ALL of which are falling under the actual decision point/control factor of the Psychological Strategy Board.
You can’t really talk about Martin Orne and not mention the Bureau of Social Science Research because it was also a key factor in this whole mess.
It also was funded by the CIA through the Human Ecology Fund, and then itself became a kind of second level channel to other projects. Tricky, eh? It’s double-layered.
But then, as if that wasn’t enough, it also received funding from the Air Force and other CIA conduits such as the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and the National Science Fund (NSF) – that last one is the one mentioned by George Morgan as his preferred choice of funding conduit for his Doctrinal Program.
You can see why one of the functions of George and the PSB was to coordinate and keep an eye on all these secret and covert projects of psychological warfare.
It’s a real spaghetti mess.
Let’s take up one final quote from the absolutely magnificent paper (our Ref #1) put out in 2008 by psychologist Frank Summers. Magnificent, because it so accurately, and with great attention to detail, spells out many things with a clarity and insight that I have rarely seen.
During the 1950’s the government spent about $1 billion annually ($8 billion 2008 dollars) on communication studies, much of which went to social psychologists. However, some of this money was used for secret torture studies with social psychology providing an effective cover. For example, the CIA funded studies of POW torture through the BSSR under the guise of a social psychological study of communication.
In case you missed it, please realize this means people like Orne, Lifton, Monroe, etc. etc. were actually torturing people to study their “responses”. Well, what the heck did they think their responses were going to be?
Martin Orne was funded by the CIA through the Human Ecology Fund – we documented that earlier – while often at the same time he was being funded by the Army (ARI), the Air Force, the NSF, and the DOD through the Office of Naval Research, as well as sometimes even through another conduit at the time – the National Institute of Mental Health.
A Dr. Bert King, who is listed as being the associate director of ONR’s group psychology branch.
Let me show you some examples of Orne being funded by this branch all the way into the 1960’s and even the 1970’s.
This one is from 1969 –
The substantive work reported in this paper was supported in part by Contract #Nonr 4731 from the Group Psychology Branch, Office of Naval Research. The research on the detection of deception was supported in part by the United States Army Medical Research and Development Command Contract #DA-49-193-MD-2647.
This one is from 1966 –
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 1966, Vol. XIV, No. 2, 121-134
ON THE MECHANISMS OF POSTHYPNOTIC AMNESIA; Martin T. Orne, Institute of the Pennsylvania Hospital and University of Pennsylvania
Paper read at Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Los Angeles, October, 1965.
1 The laboratory studies reported in this paper were supported in part by Public Health Research Grant #MH 11028, National Institute of Mental Health, United States Public Health Service, by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research Grant #AF-AFOSR-707-65, by Contract #Nonr 4731 from the Group Psychology Branch, Office of Naval Research, and by the Institute for Experimental Psychiatry.
Boy, see what I mean? Besides his CIA funding on MKULTRA Project #84, he’s got five different funding sources going at once here!
Also note the last one, because he’s listing his own institute as the funding source, the same institute that we already documented that itself was being funded by the Human Ecology Fund for a long time. That’s that double-layer funding in action there.
I think I’ll add showing you here just one example document that shows this continuation of research for almost two decades, research that Orne had been being asked and funded to do initially under the auspices of the PSB as far back as his college days.
Some time prior to 1964, Frank J. Evans and Martin Orne had conducted research at the Massachusetts Mental Health Center and Harvard Medical School.
Evans, F. J., & Orne, M. T. Motivation, performance, and hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1965, 13, 103-116.
Manuscript submitted October 19, 1964.
1 This study was conducted at the Massachusetts Mental Health Center and Harvard Medical School. It was supported by contract number Nonr 3952 (00) from the Office of Naval Research. The senior author was under the tenure of a Fulbright Travel Award, Research Category.
A Secret CIA Project
PSB Doctrinal Program
sponsored group: Bureau of Social Science Research
As Simpson documents in Science of Coercion Communication Research and Psychological Warfare, 1945-1960, those quickly setting up ‘civilian’ communication research after WWII had been responsible for wartime psychological warfare. And these “government psychological warfare programs helped shape mass communication research into a distinct scholarly field, strongly influencing the choice of leaders and determining which of the competing scientific paradigms of communication would be funded, elaborated, and encouraged to prosper.”
As I said, you can’t really talk about Martin Orne and not mention the Bureau of Social Science Research because it was also a key factor in this whole mess.
Bureau of Social Science Research basic history –
The Bureau of Social Science Research (BSSR) existed between 1950 and 1986 as a non-profit research institution for the conduct of research in basic and applied social science. The overall purposes of the Bureau were the development of social theory and research methods and their application to contemporary social problems.
If you do a basic google search like this you can immediately get an idea of a variety of people that have been associated with this place.
What you won’t see right away is information like this from Christopher Simpson in Science of Coercion –
In another case the CIA clandestinely underwrote the Bureau of Social Science Research (BSSR) studies of torture—there is no other word for it—of prisoners of war, reasoning that interrogation of captives could be understood as simply another application of the social-psychological principles articulated in communication studies.
That is associated with reference 5 from Simpson’s book which is extensively documented –
5. Albert Biderman, “Social-Psychological Needs and ‘Involuntary’ Behavior as Illustrated by Compliance in Interrogation,” Sociometry 23, no. 2 (June 1960):120-47; Louis Gottschalk, The Use of Drugs in Information-Seeking Interviews, Bureau of Social Science Research report 322, December 1958, BSSR Archives, series II, box 11, University of Maryland Libraries Special Collections, College Park; and Albert Biderman, Barbara Heller, and Paula Epstein, A Selected Bibliography on Captivity Behavior, Bureau of Social Science Research report 339-1, February 1961, BSSR Archives, series II, box 14, also at the University of Maryland. Biderman acknowledges the Human Ecology Fund—later revealed to have been a conduit for CIA funds—and U.S. Air Force contract no. AF 49 (638)727 as the source of his funding for this work. For more on the CIA’s use of the Human Ecology Fund and of the related Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology, see John Marks, The Search for the “Manchurian Candidate”: The CIA and Mind Control (New York: Times Books, 1979), pp. 147-63.
Albert D. Biderman of the Bureau of Social Science Research and Herbert Zimmer of University of Georgia edited a book on torture based on MK-ULTRA and related research.
The authors included Robert Rogers Blake of the University of Texas, R. C. Davis of Indiana University, Louis Gottschalk of Cincinnati General Hospital, Lawrence Hinkle of Cornell Medical Center, Philip Kubzansky of Boston City Hospital, Malcolm Meltzer of the District of Columbia General Hospital, Jane Mouton of the University of Texas, and Martin Orne of Harvard University.
Several of the papers in the book actually acknowledge the support of The Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology, the front organization for MK-ULTRA and the CIA that the PSB and Allen Dulles had asked Harold Wolffe to create.
Now we come upon something you may not be aware of.
The following is research taken from my as yet unpublished article concerning how these “projects” continued and where they rolled on over into.
After MKULTRA had been running for a while, and after one of it’s main cut-out funding front groups had already been created by the CIA (The Society for Human Ecology) did you know they created another one and sort of held it in ‘just in case’ land?
It was called the Scientific Engineering Institute (SEI) and Agency officials had set it up originally in 1956 as a proprietary company to do research on radar and other technical matters that had nothing to do with human behavior. Its president, who says he was a “figurehead,” was Dr. Edwin Land, the founder of Polaroid.
Notice that it says “Research in Life Sciences began in 1962.” and that it became a subsidiary of United Aircraft Corporation, “administered by the United Aircraft Research Laboratories, Hartford, Connecticut” in 1966.
MKULTRA rolled along and then concurrent with that change at SEI, there was a change of policy at the CIA in 1962 –
26 July 1963, Report of the Inspection of MKULTRA originally found in Black Vault’s MKULTRA archives disk#4, folder 17748. I have created a single searchable PDF (which I added to the CIA declassified document library here) of just this Earman Report to make it easier for everyone to access it.
Here’s the PDF – Earman Report on MKULTRA 26 July 1963
From image #24 –
32. The current management of TSD has initiated a policy of directing the activities of MKULTRA and of the Behavioral Activities Branch towards operations and away from long-range research. Prior to this change in policy which occurred in 1962, MKULTRA sponsored a large number of projects in the fields of applied psychology, sociology, anthropology, and graphology. The present management is unlikely to return to these fields of research under MKULTRA charter.
Note “these fields” is in reference to whichever projects were being terminated, not ALL aspects of those fields were being “left”.
Page 9 of PDF, Section II of the report titled Modus Operandi goes into some interesting details about how they hid their involvement in such things.
6 – The research and development of materials capable of producing behavioral or physiological change in humans is now performed within a highly elaborate and stabilized MKULTRA structure.
The search for new materials; e.g., psilocybin from Mexican mushrooms, or a fungi occurring in agricultural crops, is conducted through standing arrangements with specialists in universities, pharmaceutical houses, hospitals, state and federal institutions, and private research organizations who are authorities in the given field of investigation in their own right. Annual grants of funds are made under ostensible research foundation auspices to the specialists located in the public or quasi-public institutions. This approach conceals from the institution the interest of CIA and permits the recipient to proceed with his investigation, publish his findings (excluding intelligence implications), and account for his expenditures in a manner normal to his institution. A number of grants have included funds for the construction and equipping of research facilities and for the employment of research assistants.
Key individuals must qualify for top secret clearance and are made witting of Agency sponsorship. As a rule each specialist is managed unilaterally and is not witting of Agency support of parallel MKULTRA research in his field. The system in effect “buys a piece” of the specialist in order to enlist his aid in pursuing the intelligence implications of his research. His services typically include systematic search of the scientific literature, procurement of materials, their propagation, and the application of test dosages to animals and under some circumstances to volunteer human subjects.
No quarrel is found with the rationale of this program to the extent that it fits the original MKULTRA charter. However, for inspection purposes, there were lacking records, year by year, of the progress of each project and the recorded judgments of the project monitors on operational benefits vis-a-vis costs.
It basically says that right on page 19 of the PDF –
As of 1960 no effective knockout pill, truth serum, aphrodisiac, or recruitment pill was known to exist.
…Three years later the situation remains substantially unchanged, with the exception that real progress has been made in the use of drugs in support of interrogation.
Ironically, however, the progress here has occurred in the development of a total psychological theory of interrogation, in which the use of drugs has been relegated to a support role.
See why the PSB and NSC supported deviationist movements aka kooky and offbeat cults and ‘drug-rehab’ programs employing these ‘techniques’ were of great interest and use to them?
Like Synanon, Scientology, SEED, Unification Church, etc. etc.
Testimony before the 1977 Church Committee’s probe of the CIA hinted that, as of 1963, the scientific squalor of the CIA’s mind control regimen, code-named MKULTRA, had abandoned military and academic laboratories, fearing exposure, and mushroomed in cities across the country.
What they didn’t know was exactly how that took place.
Dr. Orne’s work was one of the MKULTRA subprojects that survived the “trimming” after the forced reorganization of the CIA following the Bay of Pigs debacle in 1961. He was then brought under the newly founded Office of Research and Development (ORD) under Dr. Stephen Aldrich in 1962. He was one of the people involved in parapsychology research for the CIA, as well.
Orne received his medical degree from Tufts in 1955 and his doctorate in psychology from Harvard in 1958. After completing his medical internship at the Michael Reese Hospital in Chicago, Orne returned to Harvard for his psychiatric residency at the Massachusetts Mental Health Center* in Boston. From 1960 to 1964, he was senior research psychiatrist at MMHC. In 1964, he moved to the University of Pennsylvania, where he held appointments in both the Department of Psychiatry and the Department of Psychology. (Father, Son and CIA Chapter 9)
*Massuchesetts Mental Health center is the later name of Boston Psychopathic, where CIA experimenters Rinkle and Hyde were originally funded under the Human Ecology Fund.
Concurrently, towards the end of his stay at MMHC, Dr. Orne was involved with a project dubbed Operation OFTEN and now the “backup” funding front group – the Scientific Engineering Institute – begin to come into serious use.
The CIA’s new Office of Research and Development (ORD) built a new wing to the Institute’s modernistic building for the “life sciences” finished in 1964.
THE SEARCH FOR THE MANCHURIAN CANDIDATE by John Marks Chapter 12, The Search for Truth
They hired a group of behavioral and medical scientists who were allowed to carry on their own independent research as long as it met Institute standards. These scientists were available to consult with frequent visitors from Washington, and they were encouraged to take long lunches in the Institute’s dining room where they mixed with the physical scientists and brainstormed about virtually everything. One veteran recalls a colleague joking, “If you could find the natural radio frequency of a person’s sphincter, you could make him run out of the room real fast.” Turning serious, the veteran states the technique was “plausible,” and he notes that many of the crazy ideas bandied about at lunch developed into concrete projects.
Another source says that –
Palmists had already been consulted after the Agency went to considerable lengths to obtain Fidel Castro’s palm prints. A medium was used to scout the United Nations for “evil types” and an approach was even made to the minister in charge of exorcisms for the Catholic archdiocese of New York. Whatever the offer, it was firmly rejected. Research was conducted into black magic, complete with an analysis on the covens operating in the United States. The Scientific Engineering Institute funded a course in sorcery at the University of South Carolina. The CIA’s scientists carefully studied the results of the classes devoted to fertility rites and raising the dead. Simultaneously, research into brain implant echnology was stepped up.
Meanwhile, underneath the rubrick of “parapsychology” they worked with their new found subjects searching for ways to use the paranormal in spying and counter-intelligence.
Agency officials wanted to know:
- whether psychics could read minds or control them from afar (telepathy),
- if they could gain information about distant places or people (clairvoyance or remote viewing)
- if they could predict the future (precognition)
- influence the movement of physical objects or even the human mind (telekinesis).
The above list of their parapsychology goals is from an excellent article by John Wilhelm called: Psychic Spying – Washington Post August 7, 1977
By 1964, a man named Dr. James H. Wakelin was the President of SEI. Wakelin was also the chief scientist at Ryan Aeronautical corporation, and the former assistant secretary of the Navy ORD (office of Research and Development).
This is Wakelin
Under his helm, in one year, just the CIA alone funnelled 250,000 dollars into the SEI. (Marks, Chapter 12, The Search for Truth)
That is almost 2 million dollars in 2017 money.
Wakelin is listed as President at least through 1965, when he also became chairman of the Army’s Research Analysis Corporation – which we already know is one of the other funding conduits for “psychology” research.
History of Operations Research in the United States…, Volume 2; Volumes 1961-1973, By Charles R. Shrader
Dr. Orne’s work in hypnotic suggestion and dissolution of memory… a $30,000 grant to Orne from Human Ecology, and another $30,000 from Boston’s Scientific Engineering Institute (SEI) – another CIA funding cover, founded by Edwin Land of the Polaroid Corporation (and supervision of the U-2 spy plane escapades).
This, 1964, was the year that the CIA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD) geared up a study of parapsychology and the occult – which Dr. Orne was also deeply involved in.
This “investigation”, dubbed Project OFTEN-CHICKWIT, gave rise to the aforementioned establishment of a social “laboratory” by SEI scientists at the University of South Carolina – a college class in black witchcraft, demonology and voodoo.
Project MKCHICKWIT, or CHICKWIT was a covert Department of Defense program developed in conjunction with the CIA. A partner program to MKSEARCH – (note: there is a lot of of interesting information in this document re: who did what and who funded what)
Quoting from the document –
- MKSEARCH: This was apparently a successor project to MKULTRA, which began in 1965 and was terminated fn 1973. The objective of the project. was to develop a capability to manipulate human behavior in a predictable manner through the use of drugs.
- MKCHICKWIT or CHICKWIT: This was apparently a part of the MKSEARCH program. Its objective was to identify new drug
developments in Europe and Asia and to obtain information and samples.
- MKOFTEN or OFTEN: This was also apparently a part of the MKSEARCH project. Its objective was to test the behavioral and
toxicological effects of certain drugs on animals and humans.
However, those descriptions are not exactly telling the whole story.
Congressional testimony (1977) indicated that MK-OFTEN experiments tried to “disturb a person’s psyche,” create “violent” or “irrational or irresponsible behavior” or “temporary psychotic states in subjects.”
According to writer/historian GordonThomas, MK-OFTEN’s task was to “explore the world of black magic” and “harness the forces of darkness and challenge the concept that the inner reaches of the mind are beyond reach.” Thomas posits Gottlieb really living up to his nickname, meeting with astrologers and fortune-tellers, “Chinese palmists,” voodooists, practitioners of Satanism, and who knows what else. Apparently, this was right around when Army Intelligence officer Michael Aquino joins Anton LaVey’s Church of Satan.
As mentioned previously the CIA actually even approached the monsignor in charge of exorcisms for the Archdiocese of New York, which is not much of a surprise, considering what I document in my Why Psychiatry is more Religion than Science article.
1964 was also the year that Dr. Orne, with SEI funding, moved from MMHC to the University of Pennsylvania where he marked out his very own little mind control corner.
For decades he tried to hide his long role as a CIA psychiatrist/psychologist – denying it very plausibly. However, in a letter to Dr. Orne, John Marks once reminded him that he’d disavowed knowledge of his participation in one mind-wrecking experimental sub-project. Orne later recanted, admitting that he’d been aware of the true source of funding all along.
And that means…he was still working for the CIA during the whole Patricia Hearst staged event proving the ‘badness’ of cults, along with that nasty woman Margaret Singer.
A real controlled opposition operation, that was.
Next, we’re going to dig much deeper into other cross-connections into organizations that the PSB was sponsoring/supporting through its many conduits – courtesy of its National Security Council connections.
A Secret CIA Project
PSB Doctrinal Program
sponsored group: The HRRI
1949 was a busy year.
The CIA, the Air Force, and the Naval Reserve (then an intelligence unit) all started mind control research at the same time.
You can see why they would soon feel they needed to form the Psychological Strategy Board under the National Security Council – including why they would have William Webster representing the Defense Department part of it through his secretive function as Chairman of the “Defense Research Board”. He had some major connections and subordination historically already, to the British and Vatican slavemasters. See – A History of How The Slavemasters Infiltrated the U.S. To Embroil Americans In Their Crimes Against Humanity
But something else was formed that same year – 1949 – in July underneath the auspices of our old friend (sarcastically speaking) the Defense Research Board.
Human Resources Research Institute.
This agency, the Human Resources Research Institute, was authorized in July 1949 and is under the direction of a civilian social scientist, Dr. Raymond V. Bowers, former Executive Director of the Committee on Human Resources, Research and Development Board, Department of Defense.
I’m going to be quoting liberally from the same article I found the above in. It’s from February 1951, the News and Announcements section of the American Sociological Review, 16(1), 107-117. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2087982 (I have listed it as reference #12)
Now, I’m not going to say too much about all this right now, even though, yes, there are any number of things that deserve commentary that’s for sure, but to start you in familiarizing with this whole area I think it’s going to be easier to just look this over as a whole to start with.
But, do note that when it was announced and really got off the ground was the same year that the PSB was formed, the same year of the “meeting” at the Ritz Carlton.
It’s pretty clear there is a connection there to both those items, and when The HRRI appointed an Advisory Research Council in 1949 to assist in its development? Some of the people on it are most definitely connected to some pretty nasty things that the slavemasters were clearly paying it forward on continuing. The eugenics driven human experimentation begun under the cover of WWII, for example.
The Chairman of the Advisory Research Council was Mr. Charles Dollard, who also happened to be the President of the Carnegie Corporation of New York.
This council met twice a year.
Other members of the council included –
- Dr. Edward Pendleton Herring, President of the Social Science Research Council; became president in 1948 until 1968. His father Arthur Pendleton Herring (photo below) had been the Commissioner of Mental Hygiene (Mental “health”/Eugenics) of Maryland. After World War II, Dr. Herring was the chief intellectual architect of the National Security Act of 1947.
- Dr. Carl Hovland, Chairman of the Department of Psychology, Yale University;
- Dr. Leland DeVinney, Assistant Director of the Social Science Division, Rockefeller Foundation;
- Dr. Philip Hauser, Associate Dean, Division of Social Science, University of Chicago;
- Dr. Carroll Shartle, Chairman, Personnel Research Board, Ohio State University. Studied under Goddard (Eugenics) for his masters degree in New York. Joined Occupational Research Board (ORB) of U.S. Department of Labor in 1935. Developed “deferment” out of military service during WWII for “critical occupations”.
(1) “At the request of the War Department, in April 1940, the National Research Council approved a committee on the Classification of Military Personnel. Under the chairmanship of Walter V. Bingham, L. J. O’Rourke, Marion Richardson, and I were on it from the government along with L. L. Thurstone, University of Chicago, Henry Garrett, Columbia, and Carl Brigham of Princeton. This became quite an active committee.”
(2) “The Office of Strategic Services, forerunner of CIA, was also an interesting case. I had to know what each person was doing before I would act. I developed a point system to rate essentiality, job complexity, and other job characteristics relative to the war emergency. The Washington News got hold of it and it made the front page which resulted in a lot of flack. We had to appear before the House Committee on Military Affairs every 30 days”
(3) “To assist in the expansion of psychology in the government, an office of Psychological Personnel was established in 1941 at the National Academy of Sciences building on Constitution Avenue. Steuart Henderson Britt of George Washington University was the first director. This office continued through the war”
(4) “I had the privilege to begin serving in 1946 on the newly created Human Resources Committee of the Joint Research and Development Board of the Armed Services. We planned the long-range program for the yet to be Department of Defense. I remember Vannevar Bush, Chairman of the Board, telling us that our area was a bit on the “lunatic fringe” but he thought it important nevertheless. Donald Marquis, University of Michigan, was Chairman, and Samuel Stouffer, Harvard, William Menninger, Menninger Clinic, and I made up the Committee, which had several specialized panels.”
(5) “In 1952-53 during the Korean War, I had taken leave from Ohio State to become Director of Research, Human Resources Research Institute of the U. S. Air Force. (For three years I had been active on its Advisory Committee.) Program included an officer personnel, officer education, manpower, human relations, psychological warfare, and strategic intelligence. We dispersed several million dollars in grants and contracts, the largest one a grant to the Harvard Business Research Center for a working model of Soviet society.“
Gallery of all the members of this council –
Whoa. This really is eugenics simply re-booted and cloaked as ‘social science’!!! That is not good.
Man. That is quite horrible actually.
I really hate these people’s insane ideas about life and humanity, I really do.
But, I digress…
Going into the text of their 1951 announcement now –
The Department of the Air Force has recently established a new social science research agency at Air University, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama.
One of three Air Force research agencies in the field of human resources, the Institute has been assigned a broad mission, focused on the educational, social psychological, and sociological prob!ems of the Air force. This mission includes research problems of (a) officer education and personnel, (b) military management and manpower utilization, and (c) strategic intelligence and psychological warfare. The research interests of the Institute in these three areas encompass such varied problems of personnel operations as leadership, morale, officer career guidance. manpower utilization, group motivation, organizational analysis and air-base community structure; and such problems of strategic intelligence and psychological warfare operations as relate to the social and psychological vulnerabilities of foreign nations.
Being a part of the research and development program of the Air Force, the Institute has Air Force wide research responsibilities, and is responsible for developing an integrated long-range program to accomplish its mission.12
The Council meets semi-annually, or oftener on call of the Chairman, to review Institute policies and to make suggestions concerning contract research.12
As Dr. Shartle said, they doled out millions of dollars too universities to perform “psychological warfare” research etc.
The Institute is developing its program of research through both contract and inservice projects. Several projects are now under way that involve contracts with universities or other organizations.
Realize how perfectly that was dove-tailing into what George Morgan (who would be superior to any of these front groups) had outlined in his Doctrinal Program proposal – where he went on at some length about the different ways they could get people at universities to do studies and submit research papers on particular areas of interest they wanted.
Which, in turn dove-tailed with the one of the pivotal outcomes of the secret meeting at the Ritz Carlton in June of 1951, where Daniel Webster of the RDB was made the ‘coordinating’ point, that outcome being a CIA funded psychological research program to be conducted at major American universities.
The CIA [and DOD] ties of the academic researchers were hidden, and because Helms destroyed the files, the identity and number of psychologists involved may never be known. 1
So, hey, hey, the gangs all here, right? Everybody at this HRRI is on-board the new human experimentation train.
The first phase of a study of the personnel records system of the Air Force includes an analysis of the reliability and validity of the content of personnel records by Richardson, Bellows, Henry and Company, Incorporated. In the area of military management, a study of role conflict in leadership is being assisted by the Laboratory of Social Relations, Harvard University.
Major research projects on strategic intelligence and psychological warfare have been started by the Bureau of Applied Social Research, Columbia University, and by the Harvard Russian Research Center, both of which have research teams working in Europe. A contract has been signed with Ohio Stale University to assist in the planning of the research program. Several other contracts are under consideration.12
Now I’m definitely going to have something to say about this next part, it’s that key, so do note it well.
In November, the Air University Far East Research Group for Human Resources was organized by the Institute to study human factor problems in the Korean war. This group is now in Japan and Korea studying three main types of human problems: morale, training, and psychological warfare. The group has been constituted to represent all the human resources interests of the Air Force, and is the only such mission in the theater. 12
Its members included the following:
- Col. George W. Croker, Officer in Charge;
- Major John W. Quayle, Assistant to Officer in Charge;
- Dr. Frederick W. Williams, Assistant Project Director;
- Dr. John C. Pelzel; “Social Stratification in Japanese Urban Economic Life.” Doctoral dissertation, Harvard University, 1949.
- Dr. John W. Riley, Jr.; later Professor of Anthropology, Harvard
- Dr. Wilbur Schramm
- Dr. Thomas W. HarrelL, Assistant Project Director; Stanford Professor Applied Psychology starting in 1952
- Dr. Roger M. Bellows; (1905-1997) BA 27, MA 31, PhD 35 Ohio State U. Professor of Psychology and Chairman of Psychology Department Rutgers University ’56 Professor 56; Chairman Psychology. Retired 1968
- Dr. Francis G. Cornell; organized West Germany Education for the army in 1948
- Mr. Daniel L. Camp;
- Dr. Nicholas J. Demerath; director of Social Science Institute, Washington University.
- Dr. Nathaniel L. Gage, professor at University of Illinois from 1948 to 1962, then Professor at Stanford.
- Dr. E. William Noland;
- Dr. Floyd L. Ruch;
- Dr. S. Rains Wallace;
- Mr. Earl Allen Waller
Gallery of these men who went to Korea and Japan – (excepting Daniel Camp and Earl Waller whom I couldn’t find)
But lookie lookie!
They left somebody off their list in this article – which per his obituary was Dr. Glaister Ashley Elmer.
“…as civilian director of the Air University Far East Research Group in Tokyo, Japan.”
Dr. Elmer received his Ph.D. degree from Ohio State University. He was a former professor at several universities, including East Tennessee State University, Indiana University and Michigan State University.
He was a consultant to the U.S. government and major American corporations, with an emphasis on military intelligence and aerospace programs. Dr. Elmer gave several presentations to the Joint Chiefs of Staff at the Pentagon as well as to the Commanding General, USAF Intelligence, relative to the development of important and often “top secret” military projects.”
His name was NOT accidentally left off this Far East list, in my opinion. This man has some seriously deep intelligence connections.
Take a look at this page from Vanguard News –
Not the least of which was the very powerful anti-communist youth group “Young Americans for Freedom” (YAF)…which in turn was deeply tied to Moon’s Unification Church!
– – –
I found a reference that helps us pin down when they arrived in Korea.
15 NOVEMBER 1950
Rad received “From Vandenberg to Barcus info Stratemeyer” in answer to my radnote to General Twining.
General Kenney’s Human Resources Team under Col. Croker will include a small team of psychological intelligence specialists under Dr. Fred Williams. This team’s operations should be coordinated by your group and their work supported in all respects so far as practicable. [Underlining in original.] 4 – p. 301
Refs given in PDF:
- 25. Col George W. Croker.
- 26. Dr. Frederick Williams was assistant director of the Air University Far East Research Group in Human Resources and also head of the Psychological Warfare Research Team.
- 27. The purpose of the Human Resources Team visit was to study the combat situation as it affected morale and interpersonal relations. Two groups, the Personal Research Team and the Psychological Warfare Research Team, made up the larger organization.
Note: in 1949 General Kenney was Commander Air University at Maxwell AFB in Alabama until his retirement in August 1951. He had arrived in Korea in August of 1950.
Another mention –
At 1600 hours, Colonel Croker and his group called. They are from the Air University.4 – p. 317
Please note that at this time, the Office of Policy Coordination was in control of this Korean interrogation team of the HRRI.The OPC was Frank Wisner’s unit, where L Ron Hubbard’s recruiter Miles Copeland worked.
The PSB was about to be created in less than six months from now, and as we covered earlier, it was created in response to the growth of Office of Policy Coordination covert activities during the Korean War.
Activities like this.
The PSB would then take over the decision making/coordination of all such covert activities.
– – –
Carrying on now –
The HRRI has six research divisions under three directorates – with Fred Williams as the program director of the Psychological Warfare Division.
Other organizational plans of the Institute call for the staffing of six research divisions grouped under three directorates, each of the latter being headed by an Assistant Director. Dr. Fred Couey is Assistant Director in Charge of the Directorate of Officer Personnel and Educational Research, and Dr. Samuel Goodman is head of the Educational Research Division of that Directorate. Other members of the Educational Research Division include Dr. Francis DiVesta, Mr. Paul Freeman, and Mr. Earl Waller.
A bit more on Couey and DiVesta –
- Frederick “Fred” William Couey – B.A. from Colorado College in 1929, his M.A. from Colorado State College in 1932 and his Ph.D. in education and psychology from the University of Washington in 1938. He was associate professor at the University of Connecticut from 1938 to 1945. Thereafter he was associated with the Air Force as professor and researcher at the Air University at Maxwell Field in Ala.
- Francis J. DiVesta – ’48 PhD, ’46 MS (Cornell) professor of educational psychology at Syracuse U, then professor of education
and psychology at Penn State.
Other civilian staff members include Dr. Frederick W. Williams, Program Director of the Psychological Warfare Division; and Dr. Dinko Tomasic, Project Officer in the same Division.
Mr. Daniel Camp is Assistant Project Officer in the Human Relations and Morale Division; Dr. Glaister Elmer has recently joined that Division as Research Assistant.
The Institute is fortunate in having a number of professionally trained officers. Col. Dale Smith has recently completed his doctorate study at Stanford University, and has been named Assistant to the Director. Other military personnel trained in social science research include Col. George Croker, Assistant to the Director for Requirements; Maj. John Quayle, Project Officer, Manpower; Maj. Charles Botsford, Assistant Project Officer, Manpower; Maj. Norman Green, Assistant Project Officer, Education; Capt. Robert Murphy, Assistant Project Officer, Personnel; Capt. Evan Stevens, Assistant Project Officer, Psychological Warfare; and 1st Lt. Truman Salyer, Assistant Project Officer, Personnel.
Inquiries with reference to employment or contracts should be addressed to the Director, Human Resources Research Institute, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama. 12
Now we need to talk a bit more about some of these people, and another one that was left off the “team” going to Korea list – the infamous James L. Monroe of Maxwell Air Force Base.
A Secret CIA Project
PSB Doctrinal Program
sponsored group: The HRRI ——-> Air Force Psychological Warfare Research
Let’s take up this Air Force “research” aspect now, that William Webster was channeling DOD funds too – starting with some of the people involved.
Fred Williams first.
Who is he?
An archive shows that Information Bulletin No. 39 – April 29, 1946 – carries an article called X-raying the German Mind. It lists Fred as “chief, Surveys Unit, Intelligence Branch, Office of the director of Information Control of OMGUS. What a mouthful that is! It describes a “scientific public-opinion survey methods” that were conducted along lines functioning in “six major nations”.
That big acronym there, OMGUS, stands for Office of Military Government, U.S. which was established in Germany at the end of WWII.
A Princeton Alumni publication shows that he was still there in 1947, and that he was a Charter member of the American University Club of Berlin, and that his Information Control efforts were directed toward “achieving economic and political unity” for the German people.
In Black Boomerang by Sefton Delmer, p.114, it talks about that during the war, James Monroe (and Williams) had been involved with Dick Crossman (Director of Political Warfare – “white” propaganda) and Sefton (Director of Special Operations “black” propaganda).
What would become “Information Control” had a canteen that became a tower of Babel; “in marched intelligence teams, editorial writers, speakers and secretaries from Italy, Hungary, Bulgaria and even Romania.”
One of the things they invented was a broadcast to make it look like there was ‘evidence’ of the Pope’s anti nazi stance! (which there was most definitely not). They also had a “Father Andreas’ who spoke out against the experiments on live prisoners, the gas chambers, the eugenics matings, auschwitz, etc. That was because most of Germany was Catholic, especially high members of the SS.
In October of 1943, the 422 (H) of the 305th group bomber squadron was assigned exclusively to propaganda leaflet carrying using the leaflet bomb designed by Captain James L. Monroe (born 16 May 1919 died 8 May 1982). Sefton had invented what was to be ‘dropped’.
Named the ‘Monroe bomb’, and was developed from laminated paper containers that had been used to transport M-17 incendiary bombs.
In the pic below, he is adjusting the fuse on a bomb so that it will release psychological warfare leaflets at the desired height above the ground.
Military mag – Air Power History Spring 1998, Volume 45, Nbr 1
Bomb loaded with leaflets and ready to go.
It was shortly after that Mindsentzy “trial” (covered earlier) that a workgroup was set up by Fred Williams of the U.S. Air Force. It was called the Air Force Psychological Warfare Division and was located at Maxwell Air Force Base in Montgomery, Alabama. The group was a clearing house for a larger network2 – some of the members of which were –
- Colonel James Monroe (who later joined the CIA)
- Albert Biderman, a sociologist
- Robert J. Lifton and Herman Sander, air force psychiatrists
- Harold Wolff and Lawrence Hinkle at Cornell
- John Gittinger, CIA psychologist
- Herbert Zimmer
Now that particular group was ALL about legitimizing the ‘communist brainwashing’ threat, if you recall. You’ll notice that some of the names show up on the later HRRI organization, like Biderman, for example.
By 1949, Fred Williams had become a CIA agent13 and then in April of 1950 took on the cover of also working for this HRRI place out of Maxwell AFB, where he became the Chief of Psychological warfare research. At this time, now Lt. Colonel James L. Monroe was also part of the HRRI with an “air force/army” cover, and was also another unnamed member of the Korea team.
He wasn’t just left off the list by accident, he was actually overseeing the Air Force’s comprehensive study of Korean War prisoners that began in mid-November 1950.
A little background –
From 1941-43 fellow Korea team man Wilbur Lang Schramm worked in the Office of War Information, a WWII propaganda organization. He then went on to found the Institute for Communication Research at Stanford in 1956.
Schramm and John Winchell Riley Jr. (received his doctorate in sociology from Harvard in 1936) put out a quite comprehensive article about their experiences there in Korea.
Notes – In November, 1950, the Human Resources Research Institute of the Air University, under the direction of Dr. Raymond V. Bowers, Sent a team of social scientists to Korea to study certain psychological warfare problems. The authors of this article were members of that team. Other members who were especially helpful in the gathering of material and the discussions from which this article grew include Dr. Frederick W. Williams, chief of the psychological warfare division of the Human Resources Research Institute, and Dr. John C. Peizel, of Harvard. The contribution of 25 Korean social scientists who served as interviewers and interpreters should also be noted.14
Ok, now you see that last line?
The contribution of 25 Korean social scientists who served as interviewers and interpreters should also be noted
I have reason to believe that one of those 25 was a woman named Young Oon Kim who had just arrived in Pusan right about the same time that the team showed up. She was a graduate of Ehwa University, majored in Social Science (a dead giveaway now that we know what that really is) and she had just come back from spending time at Cambridge University (among other odd places to visit) doing who knows what.
Young Oon Kim
It also happens that by this time, she spoke fluent english.
Considering that Schramm and others, besides interrogating North Korean prisoners, were especially interested in interviewing South Koreans who were interned during the North Korean occupation of Seoul?
What a coincidence that a man named Sun Myung Moon had just shown up in Pusan, Korea right at that time! (after having just been released from a North Korean prison)
Ladies and gentlemen, it is my firm belief that we have just found both when and where Kim and Moon, the later main founders of the Unification Church, got recruited as intelligence assets for the CIA.
And, as luck would have it, they were both also tied up with Frank Buchman’s Moral Re-Armament group and Moon had ties to (and support from) Japanese gangster Yoshio Kodama, who himself was also a U.S. intelligence asset since 1948, and who was also a Moral Re-Armament supporter.
Kim, also managed to get herself in the middle of the black op against deep cover Chongdyo operative and Korean spiritual leader Yong Do Lee. (See library article: A History of Korea and the Unification Church That You Won’t See Anywhere Else – Part 1 )
And all of a sudden there in Korea, yet again in the middle of a black intelligence operation?
Well, there they all are.
Those guys were ALL just so dirty, crazy, and corrupt it is unbelievable. Kodama was making millions of dollars in pay and support from the military and the CIA, but was just such a douche that Howard Hunt couldn’t stand him and “fired” him from having ties to the Tokyo CIA office. (at least so visibly anyway). He was making them look as bad as they actually were and we can’t have that right?
There will be much more about that in my History of Korea part 2, but speaking of Frank Buchman and Moral Re-Armament –
The Schramm/Riley article specifically mentions a “Special Device-Self Criticism” of the supposed communist North Koreans that sounds a crazy awful lot like Frank Buchman’s Oxford Movement aka Moral Re-Armament which actually the author commented on as well.
Have a look.
“This is simply a public confession of sins against the philosophy or practice of the state”.
“More often it is oral, and made before a public meeting. Often such a confession follows denunciation. The confessor humbly admits and describes his defections, and promises to do better.”
“The setting and effects are not entirely unlike those of the Oxford movement.”
“We were given abundant testimony to the effectiveness of the device.”
Earlier, it was mentioned that Self-criticism meetings began usually with denunciations, followed by confessions and expressions of contrition from accused persons.”14
I should also point out that this is exactly what went on at Moral Re-Armaments offshoots Synanon and its nefarious Clearwater, Florida offshoot – Seed, Inc – which located themselves there the same year that Scientology did, by the way.
(see Synanon series which can be found by using the search box of our blog and entering “synanon”)
The Korea team’s mission was to gauge the morale among the troops and study the effectiveness of both the North Korean and United States’ psychological warfare campaigns – in addition to all that interrogating. BUT, they also did some recruiting and identifying of possible assets while they were there.
The mission was for about two months lasting ’til approximately February 1, 1951.
About six months later (June/July 1951) we see many of these same PSB/HRRI Korea team people being listed under: Current Statistical Projects of the Federal Government pages 16-19.
Coker Officer in Charge; Dr. Frederick W. Williams, Assistant Project Director (Program Director of the Psychological Warfare Division); Dr. John C. Pelzel; Dr. John W. Riley,. Jr., Dr. Wilbur Schramm: Dr. Thomas W. Harrel, Assistant Project Director; Dr. Roger M. Bellows; Dr. Francis. G. Cornell; Mr. Daniel L. Camp; and Dr. Dinko Tomasic, Project Officer in the same Division.
– – –
At this point, the activities of the HRRI and the Air Force Psychological Research units start sort of intermixing so we will be going back and forth between the two.
A Secret CIA Project
PSB Doctrinal Program
Bureau Social Science Research —–>The HRRI ——-> Air Force Psychological Warfare Research
Another source that I found showed that The HRRI advisory board also came to include Dr. William C. Menninger of the Menninger Foundation, a real nutcase who thought that the rape of little girls was good for them.
Please see post titled: Karl Menninger Quote about Child Sexual Abuse Being Good For Their Mental Health – Proof
I can see why the ‘reverend’ Moon and his kooky blood-sex rituals (that he lied about as being from Yong Do Lee) would just fit right in with these people.
Some of the Institutions that received contracts from the HRRI during the period of 1949 to 1951, were University of Chicago, Columbia, Harvard, U of Michigan, U of North Carolina, U of Southern California, U of Indiana, Educational Testing Service and U of Washington.
That last one, a man named Melvin deFleur was a doctoral student of sociology there and was assigned to assist in a very secret research project in 1951 as part of his Ph.D.
Per a revelation by DeFleur in 1977, CIA agent James Monroe was his liaison to the Air Force Psychological Warfare Unit.13
Funded by a quarter of a million dollars from HRRI, it was called Project Revere. They published the major findings in 1958 called: The Flow of Information:An experiment in Mass Communications.
Another project was Albert D. Biderman (died June 16, 2003), who at the same time that he was sponsored by the HRRI, he was also being sponsored by the Bureau of Social Science Research and the Air Force Psychological Warfare division where he worked under an Air Force Office of Scientific Research contract.
One of the things that he did, was that he “engaged” former prisoners of war in interviews during the time that the HRRI sent a team to Korea. This resulted in two publications, March to Calumny: The Story of American POW’S in the Korean War (1963), and, as co-editor, Mass Behavior in Battle and Captivity: The Communist Soldier in the Korean War (1958)studying stresses associated with captivity.
Because his new buddy James Monroe also became involved in running the CIA front group for MKULTRA funding, Biderman continued to be sponsored under the Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology. Monroe played a key role in the founding of that particular conduit. Biderman also became Senior Research Associate at the Bureau of Social Science Research in Washington, DC starting in 1957 where he remained until his retirement.
Between 1949 and 1951 to start, it was Dr. Fred Williams that was responsible for overseeing the HRRI psychological warfare research that was conducted at the University of Illinois.
He’s still at it in 1952, still Chief Psychological Warfare at Maxwell, as this Princeton Alumni publication shows.
James Monroe primarily stayed in the Asia Command area, arranging “assets” (recruits) and running various covert operations – including supervising the re-arrangement of funds nicknamed “candy” – one of the actual major sources of funding for a number of secret projects, ranging anywhere from Operation Gladio (the Stay Behind Network) to certain psychological warfare ‘research’ projects. There will be more about that in a separate article.
On April 19, 1953, the United States embarked upon Project MKULTRA and James Monroe was brought back to the U.S. to help get things going, but first a little stop in Alaska.
God only knows what the hell he’s doing in Alaska before he goes on to Seattle, but notice what his address given is – Maxwell AFB territory.
Of course, this could have something to do with why he was there.
OPC (Office of Policy Coordination) December 4, 1951
Lt. General W. E. Kepneri Commander in Chief, Alaskan-Command has approved the initiation of CIA operations within the Alaskan Theater. 3 – page 188
Next, in 1954 –
Harold G. Wolff begins proposals for what would become the Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology. He was already involved with Project QK-Hilltop at Cornell Medical College. Project QK-Hilltop was created to study brainwashing techniques. It was a spinoff from James Monroe’s group at Maxwell AFB. 15
- Reprise note: In general, MK Ultra subprojects 48 and 60 provided the basic documents on the Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology.
Coming back to Frank Summers article now, just to illustrate why James was coming back and just what many of these people would go on to be mixed up in –
CIA Chief Allen Dulles convinced his close friend, the Cornell neuropsychiatrist Dr. Harold Wolff, to form The Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology, later renamed The Human Ecology Fund (HEF), at Cornell Medical Center to study mind control techniques with CIA funding. Wolff, along with his partner, Dr. Lawrence Hinkle, received $5 million ($40 million e.e.) for a three year project involving the testing of drugs and the study of cultural differences. Hinkle and Wolff formed a group that included the psychologist Col. James Monroe, former head of the Psychological Warfare Research Division of the Air Force, and CIA psychologist John Gittinger. The group did a comprehensive study of Communist mind control techniques, and found the Communist regimes used primarily sleep deprivation and forced standing to coerce captives (Greenfield, 1977). (ref #1)
It was Wolff and Hinkle who produced the major treatise on brainwashing that emerged during this period. Originally written as a report for the Technical Services Division of the CIA in 1956, it was published in a major psychiatric journal, the Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, in the same year under the title, Communist Interrogation and Indoctrination of “Enemies of the State”: Analysis of Methods Used by the Communist State Police (A Special Report). – Manchurian Candidate, John Marks, chapter 8.
The team of Wolff and Hinkle became the chief brainwashing studiers for the U.S. government, although the Air Force and Army ran parallel programs. Their secret report to Allen Dulles, later published in a declassified version, was considered the definitive U.S. Government work on the subject.
1. Among the Air Force and Army project leaders were Dr. Fred Williams of the Air Force Psychological Warfare Division, Robert Jay Lifton, Edgar Schein, Albert Biderman, and Lieutenant Colonel James Monroe (an Air Force officer who would later go to work full time in CIA behavioral programs)
The Air Force document cited on brainwashing was called “Air Force Headquarters Panel Convened to Record Air Force Position Regarding Conduct of Personnel in Event of Capture,” December 14, 1953.
A couple of years later, we see that James is also mentioned in a PDF I found of the actual report of the Secretary of Defense’s Advisory Committee on Prisoners of War from August 1955.
By the time of this report, he is now a Lieutenant Colonel and is described under the heading of consulting with the Defense Advisory committee as: “Defense Prisoner Officer, Office of the Director of Plans.”
How ever so important sounding.
Cancelled air flight from that year showing the L. Col. designation.
You will notice that the August 1955 report (and study) was “completed” just prior to Monroe assuming his responsibilities together with Harold Wolff in officially organizing the Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology.
James Monroe would also shortly begin to personally supervise the psychotic work of the ghoulish Dr. Ewen Cameron.who was already under contract with the Canadian parallel organization – the Defence (with a ‘c”) Research Board.
Let’s not forget that particularly sordid little detail of Monroe’s career.
Biderman and a number of other HRRI people, including his associate Herbert Zimmer show up in the CIA-funded 1961 book The Manipulation of Human Behavior which can be found at the Internet Archive and a PDF of it can be found here. It was published by John Wiley & Sons and edited by psychologists Albert D. Biderman and Herbert Zimmer.
Zimmer was an Assistant Professor of Psychology at Georgetown University who also worked at times as a consultant for the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.
304 pages long, the book mentions Martin Orne, Lawrence Hinkle (who was working with Wolff) as well as several other MKULTRA ‘researchers’.
It consists of an introduction by the editors and seven chapters by the following:
· Dr. Lawrence E. Hinkle Jr., ‘The Physiological State of the Interrogation Subject as it Affects Brain Function;’
· Dr. Philip E. Kubzansky, ‘The Effects of Reduced Environmental Stimulation on Human Behavior: A Review;’
· Dr. Louis A. Gottschalk, ‘The Use of Drugs in Interrogation;’
· Dr. R. C. Davis, ‘Physiological Responses as a Means of Evaluating Information’ (this chapter deals with the polygraph);
· Dr. Martin T. Orne, ‘The Potential Uses of Hypnosis In Interrogation;’
· Drs. Robert R. Blake and Jane S. Mouton, ‘The Experimental Investigation of Interpersonal Influence;’ and
· Dr. Malcolm L. Meltzer, ‘Countermanipulation through Malingering.’
These titles of the books’ essays are “bone-chilling in their scientific bland exactitude”, as one person put it.
Let’s focus in again at one particular point from PSB’s Doctrinal Program –
- Create, when advisable, deviationist movements designed to split organizations promulgating hostile ideologies so long as they would not develop into a threat to U.S. security.
And now look at this about the authors of Doomsday Cult –
Rodney Stark and fellow researcher John Lofland actually sought out a “deviant religious group” to study in the early 1960s. They found a new group in San Francisco led by Young Oon Kim…
That particular deviant group was totally and completely an intelligence front for both the Korean CIA and the American CIA, with the British and Vatican thrown in there for good measure. Stark and Lofland were themselves working out of a particular Institute that was nothing but run by OSS and CIA personnel. A Berkeley institute that had been renamed to hide that it was previously a eugenics organization.
And on that note, I believe we have found another one of the deviationist movements that this secret CIA program chose to back…and John Lofland was the secretly funded man chosen to put it on the map.
Yes, that’s a dangler.
You’ll have to wait until I finish my article about that (the Use of Universities one) but believe me, it’s worth the wait.
2 – Father, Son and CIA, by Harvey Weinstein.
3 – CIA DIRECTORS LOG September through December 1951. PDF here.
4 – The Three Wars of Lt. Gen. George E. Stratemeyer: Korean war diary
12 – News and Announcements. (February 1951). American Sociological Review, 16(1), 107-117. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2087982
13 – Origins of Mass Communications Research During the American Cold War … by Timothy Glander (available at Google Books)
14 – Schramm and Riley, Communication in the Sovietized State, as demonstrated in Korea from Public Opinion Quarterly (1951) – is a shorter version of Riley and Schramm’s book The Reds Take A City (1951)
15. Buying a piece of anthropology Part 1: Human Ecology and unwitting anthropological research for the CIA , by David Price, pages 398-40