Working with the British on Morale Operations

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Overview

This CIA declassified document was recovered from the internet archive. It was declassified in 2004. This document is from Harold C. Deutsch (he served overseas in World War II as head of R&A)  – to Dr. William L. Langer – who is the Director of R&A (Research Analysis). At the time of this document, Deutsch had been consulting with various British intelligence officials in London, in order to expand the OSS MO (Morale Operations – psychological warfare) and pattern them after the British, but apparently the only operating the British were willing to admit they were doing (enough to let him study it) was “rumor-spreading”.

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Harold_C._Deutsch
Harold C. Deutsch

Harold Deutsch began his intelligence career back during his time spent in Europe as a social science research fellow in 1935-36. During that time he began cultivating the acquaintance of German officers and politicians who had participated in World War I. During World War II he first served in 1942-43 on the Board of Economic Warfare, then was assigned to the Office of Strategic Services. He served as chief of its research and analysis branch in Paris and Germany during 1944 and 1945. In 1945 he was a member of the State Department’s Special Interrogation Mission collecting information on the Third Reich from high-level participants.

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1957_William-L-Langer
Dr. William Langer – talent scout for Donovan

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General Donovan was in charge of the “office of the Coordinator of Information (COI) before it became named the OSS. He had a “board of analysts” who were what he called his “talent scouts”. In 1941 it included Harvard’s William Langer. By Autumn of 1941, Donovan had created the Psychology Division for the OSS – for psychological warfare purposes.

Essays in European History: Selected from the Annual Meetings of the Southern Historical Association 1986,1987 By June K. Burton

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The OSS Psychology Division mandate was:

The head of the division was Robert C. Tryon, a psychologist at the University of California. It’s him that wrote the report I am discussing.

20 years earlier, the Army’s Military Intelligence Division (in liaison with the early Tavistock members) had attempted a systematic social-psychological study of “belligerent nations”, that’s essentially the same idea that Tryon was proposing in January of 1942.

Tryon, for his project, suggested as a “consultant”, homosexual Geoffrey Gorer of Yale’s Institute of Human Relations, a specialist in national character studies (which was later approved).

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Essays in European History: Selected from the Annual Meetings of the Southern Historical Association 1986,1987 By June K. Burton

That’s a direct Tavistock connection, as Geoffrey Gorer, is a British born, “anthropological researcher” of Yale’s Institute of Human Relations,  and Time magazine in 1944 documented that he was doing secret research in Washington for the British Government.

See Time Magazine, August 07, 1944 – Science: Why are Japs, Japs?

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Document details

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DATE: April 4, 1944

CIA # – N/A

NAMES mentioned:

  • Harold C. Deutsch
  • Dr. William L. Langer
  • Lt. Applebaum
  • Brigadier A. Sachs – (C.B.E)  full name is Sir Eric Leopold Otho Sachs  – hewas the head of British Political Warfare Directorate; Deutsch was in London to study Brit operations and consulted with Sachs on how to conduct Morale Operations.
  • Richie Calder – (Peter Ritchie Calder) British head of planning for Political warfare , in charge of directives on black and white propaganda – Deutsch consulted with him as well
  • Captain McGranahan – Deutsch met with him to consult on “wants list” for American counter-parts in intelligence to work on.
  • Eugene Drucker – Deutsch delegated him to study what other  the OSS could assist on.
  • Thomas Whelan Reese – Deutsch wants him to head London Morale operations. *see below
  • Robert G. Neumann – consultant for rumors affecting Austria and Catholic Germany
  • Meyerhoff
  • Edward Shils – specialist in interrogation – assigned to work with Reese conducting interrogations for R&A branch
  • 10 people assigned to R&A Europe – not already mentioned are: Janowitz, Lorwin, and Finold.
  • Mr. Oechsner (Frederick Cable Oeschner)
  • Mr. Smith

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Thomas Whelan Reese taught Psychology at Mount Holyoke (a women’s college in South Hadley, Massachusetts) for more than 30 years, from 1942 until his retirement in 1974. He served as Chief of the Intelligence Section of the Office of War Information and of two divisions of the Office of Strategic Services in London during World War II. He was a Fulbright Fellow in Turkey in the early 1950s and established the first psychology laboratory in that country.

The Office of War Information was the U.S. information and propaganda organization.

His wife Ellie engaged in quite a bit of military-funded psychological research at Mount Holyoke, during 1948-1952 approximately. She married Thomas in 1949.


Ellen “Ellie” Reese

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Deutsch established Thomas Reese as the London Morale Operations liaison (with the British). He has this to say about him, in this document:

“His extensive and rich experience as director of intelligence operations in the London offices of OWI and MO (Morale Operations) has equipped him with an unusual understanding of all aspects of PW operations, as well as of the kind of intelligence and research servicing most suitable to their needs. Reese knows virtually every key figure in MO and OWI here and has a wide circle of friends and acquaintances in all agencies in London that produce or control materials of value to PW. He has a particularly intimate knowledge of the institutions and persons who dispose of material derived from interrogation and censorship. It is intended that Reese should act as chief liaison officer with MO (as also with OWI) and that he be entrusted with major negotiations and the general supervision over our work for that Branch.”

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Reese to oversee prisoner interrogations.

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“Reese, aside from his duties as OSS liaison with OWI, will also supervise prisoner interrogation operations and the exploitation of materials derived from this source.” – Harold C. Deutsch

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People pics

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Brigadier Sachs – British head of Political Warfare WWIIBrigadier_Sachs_-_Political_Warfare_Executive_-_Britain_1942

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Peter Ritchie Calder – British head of planning for Political warfare
Peter Ritchie Calder 2
He was an Oxford man, and was created Baron Ritchie-Calder, of Balmashanner in the Royal Burgh of Forfar [U.K. Life Peer] on 5 July 1966.

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Robert G. Neumann
Robert G. Neuman - LA times pic

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Edward Shils
Edward Shils

Edward Shils – later was a Professor in the Committee on Social Thought and in Sociology at the University of Chicago, but even more importantly, he worked for the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University, in 1958–59. The below photo is of him and Daniel Bell while at Stanford.

image

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Frederick Cable Oeschner – First Morale Operations Chief in 1943, pic is from Tulane University, 1924.

Frederick_Cable_Oechsner_-_1924_Tulane_University

In 1942, he joined the Office of Strategic Services.

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Images and PDF files

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For those who don’t know – OCR stands for Optical Character Recognition and when that is done on images, it makes it so you can search the images for certain words or phrases that you are looking for.

Here is an OCR’d PDF file of all the pages of this document.

Working with Brits on Morale Ops – Deutsch to Langer 4apr44

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Following are the individual images of the document, for those who prefer to look at them that way.

(click to enlarge)

working with brits on morale operations deutsch4april1944a working with brits on morale operations deutsch4april1944b working with brits on morale operations deutsch4april1944c working with brits on morale operations deutsch4april1944d working with brits on morale operations deutsch4april1944e working with brits on morale operations deutsch4april1944f

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