The Functions and Organization of the Morale Operations Branch of OSS Europe – Fifth Column Activities


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This CIA declassified document was recovered from the internet archive. It was declassified in 2004. This document is from Rae Smith to C.P. Healy. This document is British Orders to the OSS Re: MO (Morale Operations) Branch Europe. The document also mentions fifth column activities.

“The copies of your manuscript on the above subject have been received and distributed to the several members of the M.O. staff. Planning Unorthodox Military Tasks for M.O., June 7, 1943 [manuscript not found]“


Rae Smith, of the Political Warfare Executive office, says that:

As soon as I had joined SOS I discovered that a copy of the attached document had been given to David Bruce personally and privately

. I got permission from SOE to transmit us a copy officially, and I then adapted it as a proposal of M.O. Branch. My purpose in sending it now is threefold:

  1. Fred is anxious to have General Donovan shown a copy of it and really interested in it. There has been no time to do this while he has been here but I hope you will be able to do so .*
  2. We should like to have the planning group in Washington see this and give us their comments on it and bear it in mind as the lines along which we are thinking in lieu of any unified plan which, of course, there must eventually be.
  3. And, finally, this may prove to be the basis for the current British planning to which we will undoubtedly have to conform if things should happen to blow up quickly.

* I have given the General a copy of this but doubt very much whether he will be able to do more than glance at it.

Check out this rather cold-blooded view from within the document that had been given to David Bruce:

…but if the morale of the German civilians can be broken, the masses can be used as a powerful instrument.


You will notice that people are a THING to whoever wrote this – like inanimate pieces on a chessboard. Not alive. THINGS.

It is the first function of the Morale Operations Branch of the O.S.S. to employ secret radio, leaflets, rumors and agents to sustain or to depress the civilian populations, and to use them or to keep them out of the way of the armed forces…

…It is the third function of the M.O. branch to use every psychological means to increase the effectiveness of such feints and diversions or to create deception by psychological means alone.

In preparing plans for performing these functions, our first concern has been to make full use of the longer experience of the British in both political and psychological warfare and to co-ordinate our plans with their own. In this the British have been co-operative and helpful and it seems that in turn they would welcome the offer of certain help from us. For those reasons the notes which follow parallel very closely those which the British have drawn up as the basis for their own similar operations. We should add however that in addition to conforming to the British method for the sake of uniformity we fully endorse both its soundness and its conclusions.

The British method of planning has been to take a small  area of Belgium as the scene of an operation which might be duplicated in principle almost anywhere in Europe.


Good to know that’s their big strategy.

Contents listing, Section I;


Notice that itself is propaganda – playing to the Americans as if we are children in need of a “Daddy” figure. “Gee Daddy, can we help?” kind of thing. Don’t laugh, they actually did think this, studied it, and its part of why you see so many of them suddenly smoking pipes. It was supposed to be part of the “literate, educated, father figure” image.

A man named Jerome Frank published his most famous book in 1930, Law and the Modern Mind. This is 10+ years before this document we are discussing. In Jerome’s book, he had just undergone Freudian psychoanalysis and was trying to promote it by presenting a view of the law from a Freudian perspective wherein he interprets the methods and processes of law as social magic. His book describes that judges are father figures of mystical authority, dressed in robes and required to sit on high benches so that they evoke irrational deference. This kind of magic, according to Frank, helps maintain social order.

Pipes and Robes

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And what was Jerome later on? A judge. A corrupt one.

To read more about him, and the Slavemasters one world plan according to Tavistock man G. Brock Chisholm, Harry Stack Sullivan, and others, see: The Psychiatry of Enduring Peace and Social Progress – Analysis. (Note: January 30, 2018 – currently that link is not working because this post is being moved into the Reading Library as part of an as yet unpublished article)

So, this is what you see peeking out in this document with its condescending appeals to us “children” Americans from our “fathers” the Brits.


Gee Daddy, Can I, Can I really play War with you?


These Brits are obsessed with ways to control others decision processes – the real reason is because they cannot do hardly anything themselves any more.

2. The British are naturally poor linguists…


That makes no sense at all. Naturally? They are born with this inability? Slavemasters, however, are known for their inability to accurately duplicate (which you would need in order to do languages and accents). This is because they spend so much time lieing that it gets into everything that they do.

Well, there you go.


3. The British contend with obvious sincerity that Americans should have unusual aptitude for this type of work.


Oh lordie. A not too well-veiled insult there. Think about it – why the need for the phrase “with obvious sincerity”?

It is undoubtedly true that normal American political rallies and campaigns, American showmanship, broadcasting, sports, the Press and many other phases of American life appear better preparation than do their British counterparts for the task which must be done among the masses of the people at the time of an invasion.”

Oh, undoubtedly


That’s rich, considering most of those things were pretty much controlled by Brit Slavemasters and their Igors!

Not to mention, but didn’t this document just say that the Americans needed to nod to the Brits because of their long experience in psychological and political warfare?

Why yes, it did!

…our first concern has been to make full use of the longer experience of the British in both political and psychological warfare and to co-ordinate our plans with their own.


That being the case, it makes the blatant pandering and sucking-up (yet slyly insulting) statements about “our unusual aptitude” even more obviously propagandish and purely an attempt to recruit us Americans into the psychotic British ’cause’.

Then there is this problem that the Brits were having –

5. Many of the occupied peoples are suspicious of the political intention of the British and of their agents of continental nationality. U.S. agents may be considered more impartial and may therefore be preferable in certain areas…

People are suspicious of the Brits intentions?

There’s a shocker.


Contrast this:

6. …Rightly or wrongly, the Germans believe that Americans will be more lenient and moderate.


To this:

7. The Germans are known to believe that Americans will be unusually ingenious and ruthless in every form of effort to create confusion and terror, to sabotage, to assassinate, etc. Thus they may be expected to feel in advance some degree of the apprehension and respect for the unexpected things the enemy may do which is an essential ingredient of a nerve war.


Well, which is it? Lenient or Ruthless? Doesn’t really matter, the Brits are responsible for propagandizing BOTH images of Americans to the German people. But, good God, can’t they even keep their lies straight in their own document?

For all of the foregoing reasons it is believe that the United States should be prepared to play a major part in secret morale operations.


Because…the Brits:

  • Lack the duplication ability necessary to do languages because they lie day in and day out
  • People don’t trust them
  • They can’t seem to really DO anything themselves.

Yep. That about sums up Section I there.

The next section has a part that is talking about Camp X – the Brits secret Canadian Base for training secret agents.

*See CIA Document page Planting Articles in Foreign editions of Time, New York Times, etc.  for more information on Camp X.



We have thoroughly inspected the facilities developed by the British for giving training of the type required, and if it is not contrary to higher policy it is our proposal to accept their invitation to use the same facilities for the next few months, only supplemented by one or two of our own officers. [George White did training of others at camp X] This joint training should improve the unity and co-operation which are unusually necessary in work of this kind. When the numbers of our recruits become large, it will be necessary to enlarge the present training facilities or to set up new schools.


This document also contains detailed plans for Operations in Belgium, including fifth-column activities.

  • fifth column – a group of secret supporters of an enemy that engage in espionage, sabotage, and other subversive activities within the borders of a nation.

It is interesting to see what the Slavemasters favorite focus is as far as psychological objectives – in real life. Section C of the plan lists the psychological objectives.

“The psychological objectives to be attacked are:

(i) the confidence and sense of security of the German Local Command: the ideal to aim at is that, in the chaos which surrounds it, it feels that every message it received may be false, that every order it despatches may be intercepted or perverted, that every member of its personnel may be in immediate danger of assassination.”

(ii) The morale of the ordinary German soldier who, ideally must be brought to doubt whether there is anyone – fellow soldier or civilian – whom he can trust, whether there is any order he can believe, and whether there is any place where he is safe.


I think that you could substitute other “targets”, whether persons or organizations in this missive and it would still hold true as an operating desired state to be sought after by crazy Slavemasters.

The document then does a pretty comprehensive list of all the methods and ways to accomplish these objectives.


Document details

DATE: July 31, 1943

CIA # – N/A

NAMES mentioned:

  • David Bowes Lyon – British Intelligence, staff of the secret propaganda department called the Political Warfare Executive;  was posted to the British Embassy in Washington in 1941.  He was the sixth son of Claude Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, and was the brother of the “Queen Mother”. He has been referred to as “a vicious little fellow”. The Daily Mail discussed the “notorious and flagrantly homosexual adventures Sir David Bowes Lyon“.
  • C. D.  Charles Jocelyn Hambro – British Intelligence, Director of SOE. The Director of SOE was usually referred to by the initials “CD“. Hambro was a close friend of Churchill’s. Hambro was born into a banking family of Danish origin which had settled in Dorset and the City of London (see article War and The City of London) in the early 19th century. In 1928, when only 30, Charles was elected a director of the Bank of England.At the start of World War II he was asked by Ronald Cross to join the “Ministry of Economic Warfare”, a cover organisation for the Special Operations Executive.
  • John Whittington Hacket – SOE (Special Operations Executive – British Intelligence)*
  • Terence G.M. Harman – PWE (Political Warfare Executive) British propaganda – Terence Harman was the PWE Regional Director for the Low Countries, circa 23 September 1941. *  He went from there to being the head of Reader’s Digest International Operations – Reader’s Digest is a MAJOR PROPAGANDA VEHICLE. He was born in England, and worked for J. Walter Thompson, the ad agency, in London and later during the “Belgium” experiment mentioned in this document. He was first attached to the British Foreign Office, then the SOE in intelligence operations in the eastern Mediterranean area. He also did liaison work with the OSS. Just after the War, he was recruited to HEAD the british Read’er Digest office. In 1965 he moved to New York to supervise all 14 Reader’s Digest international Operations.NY Times obit December 1977
  • Rae Smith – Head of OSS London Morale Operations Branch – British propaganda  * see more about Rae below
  • Charles P. Healy  – Deputy Chief of OSS Morale Operations
  • David K.E. Bruce – Director or Chief of the OSS SI (Special Intelligence) division 1942.


* About John Whittington Hacket and the SOE

The Special Operations Executive was created in July 1940. It was a fusion of three other unknown to the public organizations: Section D of the Secret Intelligence Service (SIS or also called MI6); a branch of the Foreigh Office known as EH or CS; and a research group in the War Office initially called GS(R) later MI(R) – these initials standing for General Staff (research) and Military Intelligence (Research) respectively.


To MAINTAIN the illusion, effective black propaganda must be distributed in a way as not to reveal its true origin. Usually this requires a clandestine method of dissemination.

Under the agreement reached between PWE and SOE, the latter…was solely responsible for the dissemination of black propaganda to Germany and to German troops anywhere. Their responsibilities also extended to the running of any specialist propaganda agents.

The Hackett School (codenamed STP and STS 39)

Any agents showing an aptitude for propaganda work went to the Hacket School. Section D had originally established a propaganda school under Kim Philby in August 1940. In the summer of 1941 he was joined by then Major John W. Hackett.

Hackett had run an advertising agency prior to the war, and in 1940 he was recruited by Section D to organise propaganda to neutral countries trying to get them involved.  In October 1941, with the creation of the new school, Hackett was an SOE employee but the school’s curriculum was created by both the PWE and the SOE. Its curriculum taught agents that subversive propaganda should create:

“General dissatisfaction, fear and anxiety and deprivation of the comforts of home [That it] must be simple, accurate and repetitive. It must come from the right source and be directed to the right people at the right moment. Successful propaganda work involves an intelligent investigation of local opinion interests.”

SOE completely took over the school in July of 1943, and then it was re codenamed STS 39 and moved to another new location at Wall Hall, near Watford.

Hackett left for the USA in November of 1943 to organize a psychological warfare training programme for the OSS Morale Operations agents. Command of STS 39 was given to Major Walter Bryce Gallie for the remainder of its existence. The last students graduated in May of 1944.
RefThe Black Art – British Clandestine Psychological Warfare…By Lee Richards


*About Terrance Harman – PWE

The Political Warfare Executive (PWE) was a British clandestine body created to produce and disseminate both white and black propaganda, with the aim of damaging enemy morale and sustaining the morale of the Occupied countries.

The Executive was formed in August 1941, reporting to the Foreign Office. The organization was governed by a committee initially comprising Anthony Eden (Foreign Secretary), Brendan Bracken (Minister of Information) and Hugh Dalton (Minister of Economic Warfare), together with officials Rex Leeper, Dallas Brooks and Robert Bruce Lockhart as chairman (and later Director General). Roundell Palmer (the future 3rd Earl of Selbourne) later replaced Dalton when he was moved to become President of the Board of Trade. Ivone Kirkpatrick, an advisor to the BBC and formerly a diplomat in Berlin, also joined the committee, while Leeper left to become British Ambassador to Greece.

PWE included staff from the Ministry of Information, the propaganda elements of the Special Operations Executive, and from the BBC. Its main headquarters was at Woburn Abbey with London offices at the BBC’s Bush House. As the Political Warfare Executive was a secret department when dealing with the outside world PWE used the covername Political Intelligence Department (PID).


*About Rae H. Smith head of London OSS Morale Operations Branch

The Brits decided that a distinct branch of OSS/London would have to be formed for propaganda liaison with PWE and SOE. Thus, in June 1943, Morale Operations London was established with Rae Smith appointed branch head and initial lone employee. Rae was extremely deferential to British precedence in political warfare, which set the pace for MO playing ‘second and third fiddle to the British’ – which was not an accident that he was chosen for this role. It was a slight at the Americans, in a way.

Rae H. Smith committed suicide in 1946, so he must not have been too happy with his life with British Intelligence – which is certainly not a surprise. Bunch of loveless son’s of bitches, if you ask me.

The Brits tended to employ admen (advertising) and Rae was no exception.

Rae was among the senior staff of the London office of J. Walter Thompson, (he was senior manager of this international office) along with Ed Gordon, L.R. Starkey and Andrew Sinclair.

One of the operations Rae was responsible for while head of the London OSS Morale Operations was something called Operation Musac. Musac was an abbreviation for “musical action”. As a cover, the OSS was represented by a dummy corporation, this in turn worked together with the J. Walter Thompson ad agency. Interestingly enough, the ENTIRE leadership of the London OSS MO staff were recruited from the ranks of JWT. Ira Ashley headed the London outpost of Musac.

In July of 1944 he asked for the Washington office of OSS Mo to “deliver a flow of recordings of American songs with German lyrics.” This was intended for the Calais Soldiers Station, which after Calais was taken it was pretended to be run by Germans inside France.

In reality? The station (established 1943) was located in the English town of Milton Bryant, where the Brits had set up an advanced radio and communications center with professional recording studios. The studio had a camouflaged and secured 600,000 watt transformer nicknamed Aspidistra (“shield lily” after the hit song of the time called “the Biggest aspidistra in the World”. This metal monster had a directional antenna that could easily broadcast to all of Central Europe.

J. Walter Thompson engaged an orchestra, musicians, and directors, and rented studio space to re-do American music with German lyrics. The musicians were not told that they were actually working for American intelligence. The Thompson Agency even recruited NBC’s Irving Miller as musical director. Rae Smith cabled Washington a whole list of names to be considered for “lyricist” and “gag man”, he also suggested getting the Paul Kolner Agency in Hollywood involved, as well as Columbia records in New York.

Early in 1944, discussions took place involving the Psychological Warfare Division of the Supreme Headquarters for the Allied Expeditionary Force – which is what the initials PWD-SHAEF stand for, if you’ve ever seen them and wondered what the heck that meant. Rae Smith was involved in these discussions, and he spoke out in favor of dumping propaganda material out of airplanes and deploying OSS agents.

Rae’s first start in advertising was actually his involvement in handling Rowntree’s account at J.W. Thompson.

The British firm of Rowntree was founded in York in 1862 and converted to a public company in 1897 under the chairmanship of Joseph Rowntree. It became one of the country’s principal cocoa, chocolate, and confectionary manufacturers, part of a Quaker industrial tri-firm which also included the rival firms of Cadbury and Fry.

Rae Smith had masterminded the Black Magic chocolates advertising campaign for J.W. Thompson – quite famous still.

The Mars Bar had already been introduced successfully into Britain, and accounted for 46% of sales in the U.S. (where it was known as Milky Way). The focus then became to restore Rowntree’s trade in high-class creams with a plain chocolate assortment called Black Magic.

mars bar 1930s Milky way 1930's

.Have a chilled milky way


J.W. Thompson (with Rowntree) had the National Institute of Industrial Psychology interview 7,000 people over six months to get their conception of the perfect chocolate assortment. Retailers were consulted, shopkeepers supplied information on buying behavior and it was discovered that most assortments were purchased by men for women and that they were influenced by value rather than fancy boxes.

Rae’s research paid off, and the now familiar, simple black and white box was distinctive and somewhat of a cult classic now. The design was chosen from 50 similar ones.



Here’s a couple of examples of Rae’s Ads –

Black_magic_chocolates_-_we_strongly_recommend_them black_magic_ad


From chocolates to mind control – not much of a leap for people like this, actually.


Images and People


David Bowes-Lyon

Sir David Bowes-Lyon


Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (representing Prince George of Greece); King George VI; David Bowes-Lyon; The Earl of Athlone (representing King Haakon of Norway); Princess Margaret. Sitting, left to right:The Dowager Marchioness of Milford Haven; Princess Elizabeth holding Prince Charles; Queen Mary


David Bowes-Lyons was a member of staff of the Political Warfare Executive. He was the homosexual brother of the Queen Mother who at the time was the Queen. On November 19th 1941 David Bowes-Lyon invited the King and Queen to visit him in Woburn and see the work of the department for themselves. On their visit to Woburn a presentation was given which was recorded.

Click here to listen to part of a presentation made to the King and Queen about the propaganda activities (322k)

Note: The link has been updated and tested. It works if you open it in a Google Chrome browser. Here’s an Internet Archive version of the link just in case.

You can also listen to it at youtube.


Charles Jocelyn Hambro

Special Operations Executive –

Charles Jocelyn Hambro

This is Charles on his wedding day to Pamela Cobbold in 1919 – age 21.

Charles Jocelyn Hambro


Terence G.M. Harman

Terence_G.M._Harman New_York_Times_December_1977


David K.E. Bruce


Images and PDF files


For those who don’t know – OCR stands for Optical Character Recognition and when that is done on images, it makes it so you can search the images for certain words or phrases that you are looking for.

Here is an OCR’d PDF file of all the pages of this document.

The Functions and Organization of the Morale Operations Branch of OSS Europe – Fifth Column Activities


Following are the individual images of the document, for those who prefer to look at them that way.

(click to enlarge)

smith31july1943a smith31july1943b smith31july1943c smith31july1943d smith31july1943e smith31july1943f smith31july1943g smith31july1943h smith31july1943i smith31july1943j smith31july1943k smith31july1943l smith31july1943m smith31july1943n smith31july1943o smith31july1943p smith31july1943q smith31july1943r smith31july1943s smith31july1943t smith31july1943u smith31july1943v smith31july1943w smith31july1943x smith31july1943y smith31july1943z

smith31july1943aa smith31july1943bb


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