**Update, April 25, 2015 – Since the time of this post the DOD has made the link stop working (after it had been working fine for over 4 years, per the Internet Archive). I have corrected the links in this post to point to the internet archive copy of it, plus have uploaded the document here.
**Please also see the 25-part series detailing L. Ron Hubbard’s intelligence history before and after the CIA was created.
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I recently (April 7th) found some pretty devastating DOD documentation concerning L Ron Hubbard, Benzedrine, and secret CIA projects in 1950.
I did some other research around that point, and gave it to my husband for his use.
He put it in his Scientology Roots book, Chapter Twelve – 2 Hubbard’s Lifelong Intelligence Career which is a chapter that is currently in editing status so it keeps changing. (You should check it probably every day because he keeps bringing things together in it).
I thought it would be a good idea to bring out the segment he wrote about the information I found for him a couple days ago, so here it is –
Intelligence Assignment Research Speech-Inducing Drugs
MI 6 psychiatrist William Sargant used benzedrine for treating mental patients in 1936. Sargant “successfully demonstrated the value of the amphetamine benzedrine in depression”. 24 Smith, Kline & French then began advertising Benzedrine for “mild depression” in 1942.
Dr. Winfred Overholser was the Superintendent of Saint Elizabeths Hospital.
31 October 1942 – a committee was activated to investigate using drugs in the interrogation of Prisoners of War. They wanted to find a Truth Drug that would make the prisoners reveal secrets. The committee was first under the National Defense Research Council. The chairman of the Truth Drug committee was Winfred Overholser.
1 January 1943 – The Truth Drug program was put under the Office of Research and Development in the Office of Strategic Services. Per another CIA document referred to as OSS Truth Serum – George Hunter White and doctor Watson W. Eldridge were using marijuana as part of interrogating prisoners. Watson Eldridge was a doctor at Saint Elizabeths Hospital.
Another thing that the OSS researchers (White, Eldridge etc.) specifically advocated was combining morphine with scopalamine, in which a “state of twilight sleep” could be induced and that under such conditions a person would talk freely about things that they wouldn’t normally. They used the mental patients at Saint Elizabeths Hospital as their guinea pigs for this truth-telling cocktail of drugs.
The OSS became the Central Intelligence Agency in 1947, and the drug research was then being done underneath the CIA. The CIA had psychiatrists doing research into the pain-drug-hypnosis behavior modification method and PDH was being done at Saint Elizabeths Hospital. Ron Hubbard was involved in this, he spent years practicing abreactive therapy combined with PDH at Saint Elizabeths Hospital.
It is an undeniable fact that Hubbard did research for the CIA into the pain-drug-hypnosis behavior modification method. You can read all about this in Scientology Roots Chapter Twelve – 1 Hubbard’s Lifelong Intelligence Career, and Scientology Roots Chapter Twenty One – The First Scientologists and Their Masters.
One drug Hubbard used at Saint Elizabeths Hospital was benzedrine.
Institutional Dianetics, an LRH lecture 23 June 1950 –
One of the ways one can take a catatonic and raise his necessity level artificially is to feed him full of Benzedrine. You are not allowed to give Benzedrine, however. You do that in liason with a medical doctor.
Hubbard was fascinated with benzedrine, he continued to recommend it in conjunction with Dianetic therapy.
Hubbard submitted an article to the Explorers Club Journal in the winter of 1949, and he recommends benzedrine. 25
(The red arrow below shows you where it is in the article.)
The purpose of the Dianetic reverie is to wake the patient up. Narco-synthesis and other drug therapies have some slight use in Dianetics. But the primary technique consists of stimulants. The best stimulant is benzedrine; In its absence an overdose of coffee will do.
There are some drugs which assist reverie, however. The commonest and most easily obtainable is plain, strong coffee. A cup or two of this occasionally alerts the analyzer enough so that it can reach through deeper layers of “unconsciousness.” Benzedrine and other commercial stimulants have been used with some success, particularly on psychotic patients.
Dianetics, Modern Science of Mental Health; Book III, Chapter IX, Part Two: Mechanisms and Aspects of Therapy; section “Drugs”
Sedation of the neurotic or psychotic is a very dangerous practice. If one must do something by way of drugs for these people, better effects, according to medical observation, can be achieved by the administration of stimulants such as benzedrine.
Science of Survival, p. 218
Case Factors, an LRH lecture 15 June 1950 –
We have to have some quick method of handling inaccessible institutionalized cases…
Leave soporifics strictly alone. He could get more thoroughly restimulated in trying to come off a soporific. I know because I made myself a guinea pig on one of those experiments, and trying to get off the soporific was a tough job.
If you have to grab hold of anything, grab hold of Benzedrine… Benzedrine doesn’t shut down the analyzer. It is said in the Handbook that as a stimulant Benzedrine helps blow emotional charges. This is true.
To handle such a case, I would put him on Benzedrine, and go back over the case and start picking up the deaths and emotional discharges…
Sara Northrup was Hubbard’s second wife. She was interviewed by the Food and Drug Administration. She said that Hubbard frequently took benzedrine. 26
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20 April 1950 – CIA Project Bluebird was authorized to research interrogation methods using drugs. Project Bluebird was renamed Project Artichoke. In a CIA Project ARTICHOKE document (dated October 21, 1951), it talks about all the speech-inducing drugs that they had been testing. In addition to LSD, this document also mentioned morphine, ether, ethyl alcohol, mescaline and Benzedrine. 27
Benzedrine was one of the speech-inducing drugs that was tested for use in interrogation.
The CIA sent funding for mind control and behavior modification research through various conduits –
Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology (aka The Human Ecology Fund)
The Geschickter Fund for Medical Research
Scientific Engineering Institute
National Institute of Mental Health
National Institutes of Health
Department of Defense
Department of the Army
Office of Naval Research
The Department of Defense did research into it being used as a conduit for CIA funding of mind control and behavior modification research. A report about that was written on September 20, 1977. The report also gives specifics on the Office of Naval Research being used as a conduit for CIA funding. Here is the beginning of the report.
This next part of the Department of Defense report says the Navy was used as a conduit for CIA funding of mind control and behavior modification research.
This next part of the Department of Defense report says the Navy contracted with a New York researcher to develop drugs and instrumentation for use in interrogation of prisoners of war. Benzedrine was one drugs investigated in the project.
(5) Development and administration of speech-inducing drugs
This project apparently began in 1947 and ended in 1953.
It was performed primarily by a contractor located in New York and, in one aspect, by the Navy at a location in Europe. The involvement of the Central Intelligence Agency was apparently only as an interested observer. The project was funded by the Navy through the Naval Medical Research Institute. The Central Intelligence Agency records of this project are apparently in the BLUEBIRD .and ARTICHOKE project files.
The Navy arranged in 1950 to obtain marijuana and heroin from the FBI for use in experiments and entered a contract with a researcher in New York to develop drugs and instrumentation for use in interrogation of prisoners of war, defectors and similar persons. The security cover for the project was a study of motion sickness. The study began with six of the researcher’s staff as knowing volunteers. The project was expanded to cover barbituates and benzedrine. Other substances were evaluated.
– From – GENERAL COUNSEL FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE; date September 20, 1977; Title: MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE, SUBJECT: Experimentation Programs conducted by the Department of Defense That Had CIA Sponsorship or Participation and That Involved the Administration to Human Subjects of Drugs Intended for Mind-control or Behavior modification Purposes; p.10,
Bare-Faced Messiah P. 147 –
‘GUK’ was a haphazard cocktail of benzedrine, vitamins and glutamic acid which Hubbard believed facilitated auditing.
‘I recall Ron telling a meeting about this great breakthrough in Dianetics,’ said Forrest Ackerman. ‘He said he had discovered a chemical way to audit yourself called GUK. It comprised huge quantities of vitamins which you took every two hours for at least twenty-four hours. If you took enough, he said, it would release the engrams within you without the need for a partner.’
‘The Foundation rented a huge complex on Rossmore near Beverly and loads of Dianeticists were holed up there going through the GUK programme…’
Volney Mathison built the first E-Meter in 1940. He called it the Mathison Electropsychometer. He used the device with his patients to investigate their inner problems. Mathison was a follower of Dianetics. Ron Hubbard incorporated the E-Meter into Dianetics and Scientology practices.
Now we have all the ingredients for Hubbard to be doing the Navy contract “to develop drugs and instrumentation for use in interrogation of prisoners of war”. Benzedrine was one of the drugs tested and Hubbard had plenty of people he could use as test subjects for the experiments. Hubbard also had the test subjects for CIA projects that were interested in the same thing.
My eyes popped when I happened across that DOD document, I can tell you. Bet yours are too!
I decided to fill in a little more here, and wait til you see what else I just found. Yowza! I am dangerous when I start ‘mildly’ surfing.
Yes, yes, I know…my critics would say ‘You’re so vain!” and other such sassafrassa sassafrassa.
I say –
Benzadrine also came to be called “bennies” and some people (like Hubbard apparently) popped them every day with their morning coffee. Of course, long term usage took its toll. “Bennies” had a tendency to ruin the body of the person using them.
The polymath Norbert Wiener, in his autobiographical I Am a Mathematician: The Later Life of a Prodigy, wrote ruefully, “I tried to work against time. More than once I computed all through the night to meet some imaginary deadline which wasn’t there. I was not fully aware of the dangers of Benzedrine, and I am afraid I used it to the serious detriment of my health.”
It’s an amphetamine and also a bronchiodilator, and could be inhaled directly, delivering asthma relief within seconds.
From a 1937 Journal of the American Medical Association –
“Benzedrine Tablets were used at the department for Psychology at the University of Minnesota to study … effects on human thought. It was found that the substance increased alertness… Apparently, the effectiveness of the drug in delaying the onset of sleep has induced many University of Minnesota students to seek the drug in local Pharmacies.”
The great site Erowid – tells us it was one of the items mixed with niacin to produce psychedelic experiences – Hubbard had been doing that back in 1950!
Another well-publicized experiment occurred in a University Chapel in Boston on the evening of Good Friday 1962. It was here that twenty theology [religions study] students took part in Walter Pahnke’s Psilocybin experiments. Ten students were given 30 mg. of psilocybin and ten others were giver 200 mg. of nicotinic acid, laced with a small amount of Benzedrine to stimulate the initial physical sensations attributed to a psychedelic experience.
This experiment became know as “The Miracle of Marsh Chapel”. During the following six months after this experiment, researchers collected extensive data which included tape recordings, group discussions, follow-up interviews and a 147 – item questionnaire used in quantifying the characteristics of a psychedelic experience (Stevens, 1987c, d; Leary, 1961c, 1961d; Koestler, 1961; Roberts & Jesse, 1998).
– Mushroom Pioneers by John W. Allen; Chapter 7. Mushrooms and Timothy Francis Leary
Fig. 12. John W. Allen and Timothy Leary
Psychedelic Symposium, 1994
Hubbard’s GUK formula was meant to cause hallucinations
and he told people it would help develop engrams?
My god, he was completely into mind-controlling people that early – just like the CIA.