OSS in China : prelude to Cold War by Maochun Yu – Yale University Press 1997
Alghan R. Lusey, in China since May 1942 to set up a secret radio system connecting Chungking and Washington.
Chapter 1: The U.S. Navy Mission in China
“What the hell is the navy doing here?”
Those were the first words U.S. Navy Radioman First Class Richard Rutan heard in June 1944 as he stepped down from a C-47 airplane surrounded by a crowd of curious U.S. Army Air Force men on a desolate airstrip in central China. His blue jacket with the word “NAVY” across the back in three-inch letters clearly identified him as a sailor six hundred miles from the sea.
The way the man had framed the question was oddly appropriate. Rutan was a member of the Sino–American Cooperative Organization, or SACO, a secret joint venture between Nationalist China and the U.S. Navy formed to gather intelligence for the navy while fighting the Japanese, who had occupied parts of China since 1937. SACO’s insignia was a string of punctuation marks that looked like cuss words in a comic strip. Translation: “What the hell?”
- excerpted from book by Linda Kush
Summer 1942 –
The Navy was making headway in China (Naval Intelligence). William Stephenson, code-name Intrepid had convinced Allen Dulles (Chief of New York SI office) that the best way to penetrate China was to recruit agents from the “highest circles” of Chinese officialdom. This effectively kept the China Si office busy all summer trying to recruit Li Zheng who was a complete waste of time.
Lusey China debriefing – OSS in China : prelude to Cold War by Maochun Yu – Yale University Press 1997
“…Lusey emphatically made three points that went directly against current OSS thinking with regard to its China operations—points that were to fundamentally change Donovan’s modus operandi.
First, “neither American SI or SO operations can have any chance of success in China unless undertaken with the full cooperation of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and General Tai li.” Second, any OSS operations in China “would be foredoomed to failure if they were undertaken in cooperation with the British or even with their knowledge, for the Chinese have become bitterly anti-British.” Third, “the Chinese guerillas are far more capable of carrying on SO activities in their own country than we could ever be, and it would be in our own interest and in the interest of the common cause of defeating Japan if we devoted our energies to giving the Chinese the material assistance which they so badly need, rather than attempt SO operations on our own.”
– also see relevant OSS documents in our declassified CIA doc library.
Donovan had been fighting futilely for months with G-2 in the Joint Psychological Warfare Committee.
Donovan realized that if the Navy could somehow bypass the rather “imperial” U.S. Army in China, well then – why couldn’t the OSS?
He also realized the British had been lieing to him and misdirecting – so he decided to ignore their warnings and go “make his own deal” directly with the Chinese, but first he needed to use the NAVY ONI* as a cover to keep his organization even more “sekrit” – so off he went to Washington D.C. to ‘work the halls’ * of his Navy buds.
*ONI = Office of Naval Intelligence (where L. Ron Hubbard was)
*work the halls – idiom, contacting various people on Capital Hill
During the first half of 1942, Donovan was involved in a heavy dispute with one of his deputies, Elmer Davis, as to the role of propaganda in conducting secret intelligence. Donovan argued that there was no moral guidance in propaganda – Elmer disagreed. Donovan said that it was absolutely justifiable “to fabricate propaganda, rumor and news, and to disseminate the same, whether true or false, to promote or incite resistance, revolution, and sabotage of all kinds.” This was not actually a disagreement between the “good” and the “bad” – because Elmer was a RHODES SCHOLAR which pretty much tars him up as a slavemaster-in-training underneath the Cecil bloc, immediately. In 1910 Davis received a Rhodes scholarship to Oxford. After returning to America, Davis took an editorial position with Adventure magazine. This means he was deliberately chosen to be part of the propaganda arm of the Cecil bloc, so you may find it interesting that one of his first placements was with Adventure magazine (which I believe that L. Ron Hubbard was recruited to write for – giving us another indirect connection of Hubbard being acceptable to the Slavemasters and their agenda). Elmer then went on to write for the New York Times, and in 1939 started doing radio broadcasting (propaganda) for Columbia Broadcasting.
*also see relevant OSS Documents concerning proper “psychological warfare” according to Donovan and his British masters -
Per William Corson, “Donovan clearly looked on propaganda as an instrument of modern war, whereas Davis considered its proper function simply the dissemination of facts to friend and foe alike. – Ref: Armies of Ignorance by William Corson – p. 183
The conflict went up unresolved to President Roosevelt. He chose to split the two warring factions apart and on 13 June 1942, he issued a military order officily splitting the Coordinator of Information into two parts:
- The Office of War Information (OWI) – who would “plan, develop, and execute all phases of the federal program of radio, press, publication, and related foreign propaganda activities involving the dissemination of information”—“white propaganda.”
- The Office of Strategic services, to be headed by Donovan, would handle everything else.
Around the same time in June -
“…the Joint Chiefs of Staff were about to approve a major demarcation between OSS and SOE vis-avis the global intelligence sphere of influence that had been negotiated in June 1942. According to this secret agreement, SOE’s area of responsibility covered India, East Africa, West Africa, Gibraltar, the Balkans, the Middle East, Western Europe, Poland, and Czechoslovakia. OSS’s assigned territories included China—prominently—as well as Australia, the southwest Pacific, the South pacific, North Africa, Finland, and the Atlantic Islands. – Ref: #45 in book.
In addition, OSS and SOE would exchange liaisons.”
Donovan admired power, war, and ruthlessness. “He was a strong advocate for ummorthodox warfare that would include methods “to harass, confuse, disrupt, deceive, intimidate, frighten, injure…to corrupt…to fabricate propaganda, rumow, and news and to disseminate the same, whether true or false.” – Ref: #47 in book.
He had a “sense of destiny” – whatever that means, and apparently his most profound ambition during World War II was to lead guerilla fighters—an aspirate mostly inspired by British commando tactics.
“He had sent long memos to Roosevelt recommending such organizations. Partly for this reason, he had also requested his agency be placed under the Joint Chiefs of Staff, hoping that the OSS, as a purely military outfit, would someday be allowed to conduct commando raids. — Ref: #49 in book.
Once when his field officer in China became frustrated by inaction, Donovan reminded him that an OSS officer should always behave “like a Lawrence in Arabia.” – Ref: #50 in book.
Lawrence in Arabia?
Donovan was eager to join hands with the mysterious General Tai Li, whose “roaming and ferocious guerrillas in Japanese-occupied China”, as portrayed by Lusey, drew Donovan’s attention like a moth to a flame.
Within days after Lusey’s debriefing, Donovan was over in the Navy Department negotiating with Admiral King’s assistant chief of staff, Rear Admiral W.R. Purnell, who had just succeeded Rear Admiral Willis Lee as the chief operator in Washington for the “Friendship Project.”…”
Donovan had enormous conflicts with most intelligence agencies in uniform – but not so with the Navy. Donovan was friends with the Secretary of the Navy – Frank Knox, and this smoothed things over with the Navy ONI.
*Note – Frank Knox also had published the Chicago Daily News, and was on the board of the University of Chicago. It was he who gave soon-to-be intelligence agent William R. Corson his first job at his newspaper, and then helped him get a scholarship to the University. Frank, in his OSS “tolerance” also shows up in conjunction with WWII intelligence agent L. Ron Hubbard.
The Donovan-Purnell agreement of September 1942 had some fundamental flaws. Let’s just say that as a slimey-type lawyer – Donovan felt that all words or agreements were “subject to interpretation”. He, like a lot of less than ethical lawyers – thrived on conceptual ambiguity.
Donovan wanted to use the ONI as cover for his agents – meaning they would appear to be ONI agents working with Tai Li’s intelligence apparatus, but they were in fact OSS agents, with the foregone conclusion ties in to British MI6 as well.
This was primarily in China, but this particular cover-within-a-cover using the ONI extended to other areas under the now assigned OSS territories. Donovan wanted to use this “cover” to build up secret intelligence networks that were completely under OSS control. The fact that Knox allowed this is fascinating – don’t you think?
That was a Dangler. We’ll leave it at that, for now.
next book –
OSS, an e-book by Richard Harris Smith
*Note – numbered refs are from the book itself
“Even before the creation of COI, Donovan was known to the British as an ardent interventionist.” The representative of the combined British secret services in the United States, (code-name Intrepid) Sir William Stephenson, had told his superiors in 1940:
- “There is no doubt that we can achieve inifinitely more through Donovan than through any other individual…He is very receptive…and can be trusted to represent our needs in the right quarters and in the right way in the U.S.A.” 79
After America officially entered the war, the “closest cooperation with the British was already assumed at the highest level” at Donovan’s headquarters. 80
Stephenson gave the General vital information about British operational training methods, clandestine communications, and espionage techniques, and the first OSS agents were trained at Camp X – the secret British school in Canada.
“The anglophilia of OSS executives in Washington was shared in the higher echelons of the organization’s London office. David Bruce, the OSS commander in the European Theater, later became the popular ambassador to the Court of St. James. And Raymond Guest, a polo-playing socialite who directed OSS martime operations in France and Scandinavia, was Winston Churchill’s cousin. The personal relations of such men with the social-club establishment that ran the British secret services brought about relative operational harmony…”
Now here’s something that’ll make you sit up and take notice -
“One OSS pyschologist found that a British Psychological Assessment Board had been rejecting a high proportion of OSS propagandists, some of them well-known Hollywood screen-writers, New York advertising men, and best-selling authors. The sole reason: the candidates were immigrants of Jewish descent.” 81
Seems like others noticed “something wrong” with the British, as well.
“Many OSS men began to operate on the general principle that “in intelligence, the British are just as much the enemy as the Germans.” 84
When Donovan’s reps went to London in June 1942 to negotiate a worldwide working agreement with SOE, “they vehemently insisted that OSS be regarded as an operational partner—not as a junior apprentice, as the British had proposed.” The Americans thought they had “won” that argument, but really it was only on paper. The SOE visibly flexed their “seniority” in preventing OSS operations in Scandinavia and the Balkans on the grounds that “these areas were within its exclusive domain”. Which as per the other book and the secret agreement as to the dividing of who gets what – probably technically it was, but I need to check that.
I think that Donovan and the British, didn’t want it to be known among the rank-and-file OSS just how much of a British operation this really was. Since it was known just how much most Americans hate what the British DO to people and their countries – I think that it was decided to have Donovan look like he was “pro-American” and NOT “pro-British” – patriot and all that.
Therefore, when regular OSS began seeing for themselves just want arrogant, disgusting pricks the British were (and have always been) they would “feel safe” in relaying their real views to Donovan et al., and the British then had theirselves a handy little intel line on problematic American views of their world-domination psychosis – and could try and figure out a way both to control and eventually misdirect and derail such desires to protest the British and even go to war with them – as one OSS man said.
You have to understand about the British, the real Slavemasters yanking the chains there – that they NEVER EVER PLAY STRAIGHT.
Do not fall for what you WANT TO SEE – as they usually have that covered already with one of their stupid propaganda or outright intelligence operations. Again, they do this so they can send any real threat to them off in the wrong direction, as well as gaining themselves that INTEL LINE they so desperately need because they can’t see for shit anymore – in their current method of living, that is.
OSS agents impatience and hatred of Britain’s political maneuvers was particularly intense in the Far East. Why? Because American men and women got to see first-hand just what the British are really like towards the bulk of humanity – despite all their bullshit “cherry-sounding” words.
I already have independently researched evidence of all the points I am excerpting from these books – I am simply using these to “open the topic” as it were, and set you to looking over things a bit prior to our actually fully addressing this period of time.
One should well note:
This is the time period of L. Ron Hubbard’s strangely edited (even to today) Intelligence agent background. Even supposedly “impartial” researchers that I don’t need to name right now –
COMPLETELY and INTENTIONALLY miss the boat on who he really worked for.
I just wonder why that is – (sarcasm)
The funny thing is, in some researchers zeal to ‘prove’ one thing or another concerning Hubbard’s background – they have actually (recently I might add) provided the very documents that provide the lead to what I’m talking about. Which of course is not followed up on. By that alone, one can only assume that said researchers have to be either incredibly blind or incredibly controlled. I believe that it will become quite clear which one that is as things move along here.
No, I’m not going to get into what are those ‘leads’ right now – for one thing, in the meantime it provides an excellent reminder of just how much some people are completely dependent on us doing something first before they know what to do. And that’s not arrogance. Unfortunately, it’s a fact.
Another unfortunate fact, is just how reactionary some of these types can be – particularly towards us being ‘right’ about anything.
Don’t under-estimate that my publicly alluding to what I just did here – may just force someone into going there purely to disprove the “who is the leader, and who does all the following” idea that I just stated.
Since it’s not at the top of my list to address this area right now (other things have to be done first) there should be sufficient time for us all to watch and see if they ‘go there’.
Works for me either way – and that’s the clear beauty of it.
Clear as this water.
Apparently, many of the OSS men clearly saw that British secret services were far more concerned with expanding England’s empire than “defeating” the supposed “enemy”.
America has had a long-term opposition to British colonialism – as the War for Independence made abundantly clear to them.
The Far East comprised an area where British colonialism was still fully evident – ample proof that there was NO CHANGE with their insane desire to have so much of humanity subservient to their every whim.
General Douglas MacArthur “refused to permit OSS to operate in the South Pacific” – hence the end-run that was well covered in the other book that I was quoting. Donovan getting approval through the Joint Chiefs as to his area of operation, is of particular relevance here.
India was then established as the primary base of operations for OSS clandestine operations in Burma, Thailand, Malaya, and Indochina.
“OSS men flew to Calcutta or New Delhi to begin their tours of duty in the Far East only to be “culture-shocked” by ugly manifestations of British imperialism.”
Which, by the way, is STILL that way, no matter what PR you see to the contrary.
The OSS representative to the Anglo-American South East Asia Command wrote his wife:
“Working with our Cousins has made me cynical about ideals—if we really believe our own propaganda, we would have to declare war on the British, for they have set themselves up as the master-race in India. British rule in India is fascism, there is no dodging that.” 85
Now here’s another place where that double-dealing behavior I mentioned earlier shows itself:
“At least on the colonial issue, the OSS was in full accord with State Department officers in the Far East, and Donovan’s organization became the “faithful secular arm” of the diplomats’ anti-colonialist fundamentalism.”86
The Brits even went so far as to suggest ridiculous guidelines for recruit traits (which they didn’t follow their own selves, of course) that would set up the OSS to be completely ineffective, in my opinion.
In early 1941, before the formation of COI, the future creator of James Bond, Ian Fleming, who was a covert MI6 agent and British Naval Intelligence man (note the dual titles – one is for show, the other was completely hidden) suggested ….
Uh oh – a ‘suggestion’ from the British
Suggested to Donovan that:
“he should select as intelligence officers men who possessed the qualities of “absolute discretion, sobriety, devotion to duty, languages, and wide experience. Their age should be “about 40 to 50.”
Of course, that does tend to conflict with their actual operating basis towards choosing agents – as per this OSS document:
“In order to develop an organization capable of carrying through the mission assigned F-9 to a successful conclusion there are certain self evident, fundamental facts which must be faced:
“(1) Espionage is by its very nature not to be considered as ‘honorable’ or ‘clean’ or ‘fair’ or ‘decent.’ It consists in obtaining information by stealth, in encouraging and executing sabotage, in wrecking the civilian and military morale, and in combatting equally subversive activities directed against itself. The objectives are accomplished in large part by two appeals: to patriotism and to the lowest nature of individuals — greed, lust for power, revenge, etc. By far the largest number of AGENTS or EMPLOYEES are taken from the petty criminal class, mal-contents, revolutionaries, refugees or psychopaths. In general only the very highest in the organization work purely for patriotic or selfless reasons.”
Let’s really focus on something here:
the largest number of AGENTS or EMPLOYEES are taken from the petty criminal class, mal-contents, revolutionaries, refugees or psychopaths.
and as concerned RECRUITING said agents -
the lowest nature of individuals — greed, lust for power, revenge, etc.
Phillips then takes a moment in this more current 1942 document here, and says:
“This statement—that very few people work for patriotic reasons—is an important one to remember. The great bulk of operatives come from the lower classes of individuals, a relatively small number from the higher classes. This is a very important point.”
Just a little different than what was told Donovan – eh?
But hey, it’s all good. Donovan then got to look like the ‘rebel white guy’ when he declined this advice.
He promised Franklin Roosevelt an international secret service staffed by young officers who were “calculating reckless” with “disciplined daring” and “trained for aggressive action.” 89
The author mentions Rome, Peking, Bangkok, Paris, and Algiers as some of the areas where OSS operatives with these qualities operated.
The Fall of France –
“The Vichy regime was personified by its chief of state, the octogenarian hero of World War I, Marshal Henri Philippe Petain, who evoked nostalgic emotions in the name of Family and Fatherland at a moment of defeat and disgrace. But the real political power fell into the hands of wealthy Admiral Jean Darlan, a cynical military opportunist and an architect of collaboration with the Nazis.”
In yet another example of the staged nature of World War II as to “controlled opposition” one of the main points of agreement by peoples were very strong anti-British views.
This was propagandized by men like Bernays (behind-the-scenes though) to then fear the British and behave hysterically about them – with the requisite rabble-rouser types like Goebbels hired and spread around to “set the example” which then later could be pointed to as “only insane people would oppose the British – like the Nazis”. Which G. Brock Chisholm certainly spent some fair amount of time frothing at the mouth about later as an excuse to now “mental-health” everyone into obeisance.
An excellent example showing British duplicity and deliberate control that way, is that Churchill fanned the flames of so-called anti-British fanaticism by deliberately encouraging the Free French exile movement of General Charles de Gaulle (which was probably a British operation right from the beginning anyway) which in turn actually helped to create the War conditions the British war-mongers so desparately wanted.
Churchill, out of the other side of his mouth, then privately ‘encouraged’ the United States to “maintain formal political contact with Vichy”.
Accordingly, British flunky President Roosevelt “appointed his old friend, conservative Admiral William Leahy, as ambassador to the Petain government, with diplomatic instructions to strengthen Vichy’s determination to resist further French concessions to the Germans.”
This is who Roosevelt picked?
And of course, when the American people heard about all this underhanded dirty-dealing there was “an immediate outcry” against continued relations with the Vichy collaborators.
In the year before Pearl Harbor, most freedom-loving Americans (some future OSS officers included) suspected the State department of displaying “a sympathy for the Vichy regime that often seemed warmer than considerations of diplomatic and strategic expediency could account for.”2
In other words – they smelled a rat. A British rat.
Leahy was to later be President Truman’s representative on the National Intelligence Authority, which was the intelligence coordinating board that preceded CIA and which my relative OSS man (name) Forgan was also a main member of.
Note – The military attache at Vichy, British flunky Colonel Robert A. Schow later served as assistant director of the CIA, 1949-51, and chief of Army Intelligence 1956-58, he then left the army to join RCA.
Project Paperclip (bringing Nazi war criminals to the U.S. secretly) – its office operated out of the intelligence division’s headquarters in Heidelberg, under Deputy Director Colonel Robert Schow. While out of the other side of his mouth – he is part of “trying Nazi murderers” in 1945.
Trial of 3 Nazi murderers – Eight Man Commission
In February of 1941, Robert Daniel Murphy (an easily influenced Irish Catholic that had been recruited by Roosevelt) “…negotiated an economic accord with the Vichy governor of North Africa, 74-year-old General Maxime Weygand (reportedly the bastard son of “Emperor” Maximilian). The agreement provided that the United States would supplu the African colonies with badly needed imports.” This was all prior the formation of the COI, you understand.
* Murphy was also the American representative to the Allied military government in occupied Germany, 1945-49; ambassador to Belgium, 1949-51; ambassador to Japan, 1952-53, undersecretary of state, 1959-60. He retired from State to become president of Corning Glass International, and in 1961 was apoointed to President Kennedy’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, the CIA ‘watchdog’ committee.
When President Nixon had Nazi industrialist Richard Freudenberg arrested, U.S. ambassador to Germany Robert Murphy ordered him released.
To insure that these goods “stayed out of Nazi Hands” purportedly, the State department would be allowed “to send a special team of diplomatic observers to Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia.”
One of the terms that American intelligence used to describe what were actually intelligence men (and not really just diplomats) was “diplomatic observers” or simply just “oberserver” as a title. Sort of like how foreign office MI6 men were called “Passport control officers”.
…the quintessential but nonexistent british secret agent
This little adventure in Africa was guided by the hand of Wallace Banta Phillips, an expatriate businessman who headed the American chamber of Commerce in London and was later Donovan’s first espionage advisor (as well as serving as Director of Special Information Services. Phillips, through the Army and the Navy, “produced a dozen American steeped in French culture and politics to serve as North African “Vice Consuls” under Murphy’s Britsh-based direction”.
Note – Phillips was on-board the Lusitania when it had its disaster -
They were called “the twelve disciples” and were sent to Africa in June of 1941, taking their positions at Algiers, Tunis, and Casablanca where they mingled in the gambling casinos apparently, with German and Italian officers, spies, double agents, genuine diplomats (if there was such a thing) informers, and prostitutes.
They played their vice-loving roles well, and a Gestapo report of the time viewed them as follows:
“Since all their thoughts are centered on their social, sexual, or culinary interests, petty quarrels and jealousies are daily incidents with them. Altogether they represent a perfect picture of the mixture of races and characters in that savage conglomeration called the United States of America, [see the real British view of Americans peeking through there?] and anyone who onserves them can well judge the state of mind and instability that must be prevalent in their country today…Lack of pluck and democratic degeneracy prevails among them, resulting from their too easy life, corrupt morals, and consequent lack of energy…
They are totally lacking in method, organization and discipline…We can only congratulate ourselves on the selection of this griup of enemy agents who will give us no trouble.” 5
However, within weeks, Murphy’s spies were flooding Washington with excellent reports on all significant military and political devlopments in the colonies.
This is the whole “cultivate the impression that you’re an ass” cover – which apparently at least this Gestapo officer completely fell for. Not surprising considering the giant chip-on-the-shoulder and inferiority complex a lot of those sadists had – and probably finely nurtured by the psycho Brits who literally wrote the book on GIANT CHIPS, funnily enough.
It was in the spring of 1942 that subversive operations in North Africa became the responsibility of the new Coordinator of Information (that Donovan headed).
…Lietutenant Colonel Robert Solborg was born in Warsaw, the son of a Polish general of the Czar’s army who had served on the staff of the Russian governor-general of Poland. During the First World War Solborg was commissioned an officer in the Czarist cavalry. After recovering from a severe wound in 1916, he was assigned to a Russian military purchasing mission in New York.
When the Bolshevik Revolution brough the Soviets to power, Solborg, preferring to avoid a Communist firing squad, acquired American citizenship and enlisted in the American Army. He served briefly as U.S. Military Atttache’ in Paris, then accepted a position with Armco Steel. When the Second World War broke out in 1939, Solborg was managing director of Armco in Britain and France. Under cover of his business transactions, he traveled to Germany in the spring of 1940 to observe industrial production and later reported his findings to British intelligence. In December 1940, Solborg joined U.S. Army intelligence and spent the next eight months traveling through North Africa, ostensibly as an Armco executive but actually to contact potential French resistance elements on behalf of the War department.
In October 1941, Donovan asked Solborg to head a Special Operations section of COI. The colonel was first sent to London to study the structure of the British Special Operations Executive (SOE), which had already accumulated a year’s experience in working with anti-Axis resistance groups. Returning to Washington, he made a brief attempt to “reconcile” himself to the “haphazard way and stuntlike propsensities of Donovan’s procedures,” then left for Portugal in February 1942 to establish a COI operations center in neutral Lisbon.” 8
He was instructed to coordinate his activities with the British and with Murphy in secretly contacting French and Arab underground organizations.
Some months earlier, a second COI officer, Colonel William Eddy, had reached his post at the international zone of Tangier, adjacent to neutral Spanish Morocco. *
*Eddy later became ambassador to Saudi Arabia, 1944-46, and head of State Department Intelligence, 1046-47. Until his death in 1962, he was a Middle East consultant to the Arabian-Americal Oil company and an office of the CIA-funded American Friends of the Middle East.
Eddy (center back) with the Saudi King
“Eddy’s first problem was with the British. London’s diplomatic representatives had long since been expelled from Vichy Africa, but British secret agents (including a beautiful yoing blonde from His Majesty’s consulate at Tangier who “kept open bed” for notable Spanish generals) remained active in the region. Unfortunately, the chief of the British Secret Intelligence Service (MI-6) at tangier, a man “who would sell his country, his soul, or his mother for a peseta,” was violently jealous of the Americans. He allegedly plotted to poison his own assistant, a British major, for being “too straightforward” with donovan’s officers.” 9
Didja get that?
Violently jealous of the Americans!
Sign Off for now -
I need to go make me some of these – Yum!
By Virginia McClaughry